Surface water / Groundwater Interaction. Conjunctive use and conjunctive management. . Key Issues for GW-SW Interaction. Physical / Chemical Interaction – water balance / quality implications System Dimensions: time / flow rate factors River basin / aquifer boundaries Allocation issues
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Surface water / Groundwater Interaction
Conjunctive use and conjunctive management.
eg Rift Valley
Decant site – Witwatersrand Gold
20 – 120 ML / day
Fe ~ 5% SO4 ~11%
River systems harvest
rainfall from the basin and channel this water down the river, where it is stored in alluvial aquifers as alluvial groundwater
No streams on Kalahari Sand
Dense drainage pattern on gneiss
Same rainfall – different runoff
Improved infiltration =>
High recharge rates =>
Perennial water supply =>
Adequate knowledge of surface
and groundwater resources
needed for allocation decisions.
Communication and shared
knowledge are essential
for effective water allocation