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November 3 rd , 2011. Third Declension I-Stem Nouns; Ablatives of Means, Accompaniment, and Manner; Numerals, Genitive of the Whole and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals; Ablative of Time. Comparison of 3 rd Declension Nouns with 3 rd Declension I-Stem Nouns. Uses of the Ablative.

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November 3 rd 2011

November 3rd, 2011

Third Declension I-Stem Nouns; Ablatives of Means, Accompaniment, and Manner; Numerals, Genitive of the Whole and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals; Ablative of Time


Comparison of 3 rd declension nouns with 3 rd declension i stem nouns
Comparison of 3rd Declension Nouns with 3rd Declension I-Stem Nouns


Uses of the ablative
Uses of the Ablative

  • Certain prepositions are followed by words in the ablative case (i.e. Cum “with”, Ex “from”, Ab “by”, De “about” etc.).

  • Note: Latin does not always require the presence of a preposition for one to be understood.

  • Sometimes the ablative standing on its own must be translated with a preposition in English, esp. when used to connote means, instrument, or accompaniment.


The ablative case
The Ablative Case

  • ABLATIVE CASE GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS THE “ADVERBIAL” CASE BECAUSE IT TELLS US SOMETHING ABOUT HOW THE ACTION OF A VERB WAS PERFORMED.


Ablative of means or instrument
Ablative of Means or Instrument

  • By means of what, by what, or with what an action occurred.

  • Bestiamvinculistenebunt “They will hold the beast with chains.”

  • Auxiliopuerorumdonumpulchrumfaciemus “With the help of the boys we will make a beautiful gift.”

  • Cf. Wheelock, p. 91 for additional examples.


Ablative of manner
Ablative of Manner

  • Cum + Ablative used to describe “how” or “in what way” the action of a verb occurs.

  • Poetam cum magna invidiaaudivi – “I heard the poet with great envy.”

  • Puellam cum curaaudivi – “I listened to the girl with care.”


Ablative of accompaniment
Ablative of Accompaniment

  • Cum + Ablative used to describe with whom an action has occurred.

  • Cum amicisvenerunt – “They came with friends.”

  • Caesar cum multiscopiisrevenerunt – “Caesar returned with many troops.”


Ablative of time when or within which
Ablative of Time When or Within Which

  • Words connoting time are placed in the ablative without a preposition to indicate time when or within which the action of the verb took place.

  • Uno anno redibit – “He will return within one year.”

  • Eo tempore Caesar Galliamvincebat – “At that time Caesar was conquering Gaul.”


Cardinal numbers
Cardinal Numbers

  • Ordinary cardinal numbers (i.e. One, two, three etc.).

  • Most cardinal numbers from one to one hundred do not decline.

  • One (unus, una, unum), two (duo, duae, duo), three (tres, tria) and thousand (mille, milia) do decline – Cf. Wheelock pp. 97-98.

  • Cardinal numbers from 200 to 900 declined like plural 1st/2nd declension adjectives (i.e. See plural declension of magnus, magna, magnum – Quingenti, Quingentae, Quingenta (500).

  • Mille (1000) indeclinable in the singular but declines like a 3rd declension i-stem noun in the plural – Cf. Wheelock, p. 97.


Ordinal numbers
Ordinal Numbers

  • Numbers indicating order, rank, or sequence (i.e. First, second, third).

  • Decline like ordinary 1st/2nd declension adjectives (plural) (i.e. Like the plural of magnus, magna, magnum).

  • Cf. Wheelock, p. 451.


Genitive of the whole
Genitive of the Whole

  • A word indicating the whole group from which another word is but a part is expressed in the genitive.

  • Pars consiliituierat bona. – “Part of your advice was good.”

  • Nemoamicorummeorumvenit. – “No one of my friends came.”

  • Often used after certain nominative and accustaive pronouns and adjectives (i.e. Aliquid, quid, multum, plus, minus, satis, nihil, tantum, quantum).

  • Nihiltemporis = No time (Literally = Nothing of time).

  • Satissapientiae = Enough wisdom (Literally = Enough of wisdom).

  • Note: sometimes a part of the whole can be expressed with the prepositions “ex” (from) or “de” (about, from) + ablative (i.e. Tres ex amicis = Three of my friends); generally used when cardinal numbers are involved.

  • Cf. Wheelock, p. 99.


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