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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut January 24, 2007 www.pbis.org www.swis.org [email protected] www.pbis.org. PURPOSE

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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

University of Connecticut

January 24, 2007

www.pbis.org

www.swis.org

[email protected]


www.pbis.org


PURPOSE

Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students…...


MAIN TRAINING OBJECTIVES

  • Establish leadership team

  • Establish staff agreements

  • Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems

  • Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS

    • Data: Discipline Data, EBS Self-Assessment Survey, Team Implementation Checklist

    • Presentation for school

  • Organize for upcoming school year


Getting to these objectives

  • Rationale, context, & features

  • Implementation practices, structures, & processes

  • Outcomes & examples

  • Brief activities & team action planning


TOP FOUR 2005

Lack of financial support (since 2000)

Overcrowded schools

Lack of discipline & control

Drug use

#1 SPOT

>2000 lack of financial support

1991-2000 drug use

<1991 lack of discipline

Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.


Why Bother?

  • In 1 year, 1 school (880) had 5100 ODRs, 1 student received 87 ODRs, & 1 teacher gave out 273 ODRs

  • 2 high schools used law enforcement to give students $113 fines for incidents of profanity

  • In 1 urban school district: 2004-05, 400 kindergartners were expelled

  • In 1 state 55% white, 73% Latino, & 88% Black 4th graders aren’t proficient readers

  • UConn has no behavior/classroom management course for teachers or administrators

  • 1st response to school violence is “get tougher”

  • In 1 K-3 school in Mar, no teacher could give reading levels of their students

  • 2nd grade student receives “body sock” & “lemon drop” therapy to treat violent school behavior

  • In 1 state 7% of “high experience” teachers & 17% of reading specialists can identify at least 2 indicators of early reading success (e.g., phonmic awareness, fluency)

  • Across nation, students who are truant are given out-of-school suspensions


2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations

  • Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance”

    • Break up antisocial networks…change social context

    • Improve parent effectiveness

  • Increase “commitment to school”

    • Increase academic success

    • Create positive school climates

  • Teach & encourage individual skills & competence


School-based Prevention & Youth Development ProgrammingCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist

  • Teach children social skills directly in real context

  • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents”

  • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems

  • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs

  • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts

  • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts


Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

  • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important

  • High rates of academic & social success are important

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students

  • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterents


Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

Early Correlates/Indicators

  • Significant change in academic &/or social behavior patterns

  • Frequent, unresolved victimization

  • Extremely low rates of academic &/or social success

  • Negative/threatening written &/or verbal messages


Competing, Inter-related National Goals

  • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc.

  • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning

  • Improve student character & citizenship

  • Eliminate bullying

  • Prevent drug use

  • Prepare for postsecondary education

  • Provide a free & appropriate education for all

  • Prepare viable workforce

  • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior

  • Leave no child behind

  • Etc….


SW-PBS Logic!

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable

(Zins & Ponti, 1990)


2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior

  • Get Tough (practices)

  • Train-&-Hope (systems)


Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough

Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”

Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”


Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!”

  • Clamp down & increase monitoring

  • Re-re-re-review rules

  • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences

  • Establish “bottom line”

    ...Predictable individual response


Reactive responses are predictable….

When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief

  • Remove student

  • Remove ourselves

  • Modify physical environment

  • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others


When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”

  • Zero tolerance policies

  • Increased surveillance

  • Increased suspension & expulsion

  • In-service training by expert

  • Alternative programming

    …..Predictable systems response!


Erroneous assumption that student…

  • Is inherently “bad”

  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”

  • Will be better tomorrow…….


But….false sense of safety/security!

  • Fosters environments of control

  • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior

  • Shifts accountability away from school

  • Devalues child-adult relationship

  • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming


Science of behavior has taught us that students….

  • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”

  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

    ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function


Non-examples of Function-Based approach

“Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence

  • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.”

  • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.”

  • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”


Worry #2:“Train & Hope”


Development “Map”

  • 2+ years of team training

  • Annual “booster” events

  • Coaching/facilitator support @ school & district levels

  • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data

  • Develoment of local/district leadership teams

  • State/region & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA


Role of “Coaching”

  • Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team

  • Local facilitation of process

  • Local resource for data-based decision making


Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

4 PBS Elements

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu

Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers.Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.


Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

CO PBS

Agreements

FCPS

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


Team-led Process

Non-Teaching

Meetings

Family

Behavioral

Capacity

Priority &

Status

Representation

Specialized Support

Administrator

Team

Community

Data-based

Decision

Making

Administrator

Student

Teaching

Communications

Start with

Team that

“Works.”


Working Smarter


Sample Teaming Matrix


Leadership Team Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • Work as team for 9 minutes

  • Complete “Establishing Team Membership” (1 p. 4-5)

  • Touch “Committee Group Work” (6)

  • Touch “Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings” (3)

  • Touch “EBS Self-Assessment Survey” (4)

  • Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your group (1 min. reports)


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


3-4 Year

Commitment

Top 3 School-

Wide

Initiatives

3-Tiered

Prevention

Logic

Agreements &

Supports

Coaching &

Facilitation

Administrative

Participation

Dedicated

Resources

& Time


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


Self-Assessment

Efficient

Systems of Data

Management

Existing

Discipline

Data

Data-based

Action Plan

Team-based

Decision

Making

Multiple

Systems

Evidence-

Based

Practices

SWIS


Referrals by Problem Behavior


Referrals per Location


Referrals per Student


Referrals by Time of Day


Office Discipline Referrals

  • Definition

    • Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction

    • Underestimation of actual behavior

  • Improving usefulness & value

    • Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions

    • Distinction between office v. classroom managed

    • Continuum of behavior support

    • Positive school-wide foundations

    • W/in school comparisons


How often?

Who?

What?

Where?

When?

How much?

If problem,

Which students/staff?

What system?

What intervention?

What outcome?

+ If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students

+ Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment

Do we need to tweak our action plan?


Discipline Data Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • 8 minutes

  • Complete “Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment” Checklist (9)

  • Touch “Data-Decision Making” (B)

  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)


School-wide Positive

Behavior Support

Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems


School-wide Systems

1.Common purpose & approach to discipline

2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation


Classroom

Setting Systems

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged

  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged

  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction

  • Active supervision

  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors

  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors

  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum


Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged

  • Active supervision by all staff

    • Scan, move, interact

  • Precorrections & reminders

  • Positive reinforcement


Individual Student

Systems

  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels

  • Function-based behavior support planning

  • Team- & data-based decision making

  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes

  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction

  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations


Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment

School Rules

NO Food

NO Weapons

NO Backpacks

NO Drugs/Smoking

NO Bullying


Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged


Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context

Expectations


Expectations


Teaching Matrix Activity

Classroom

Lunchroom

Bus

Hallway

Assembly

Respect Others

  • Use inside voice

  • ________

  • Eat your own food

  • __________

  • Stay in your seat

  • _________

  • Stay to right

  • _________

  • Arrive on time to speaker

  • __________

Respect Environment & Property

  • Recycle paper

  • _________

  • Return trays

  • __________

  • Keep feet on floor

  • __________

  • Put trash in cans

  • _________

  • Take litter with you

  • __________

Respect Yourself

  • Do your best

  • __________

  • Wash your hands

  • __________

  • Be at stop on time

  • __________

  • Use your words

  • __________

  • Listen to speaker

  • __________

Respect Learning

  • Have materials ready

  • __________

  • Eat balanced diet

  • __________

  • Go directly from bus to class

  • __________

  • Go directly to class

  • __________

  • Discuss topic in class w/ others

  • __________


Teaching Academics & Behaviors


Character Education

  • Easy to change moral knowledge..... ...difficult to change moral conduct

  • To change moral conduct...

    • Adults must model moral behavior

    • Students must experience academic success

    • Students must be taught social skills for success


Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale

  • To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions

  • Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment

    • Planned/unplanned

    • Desirable/undesirable

  • W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors


Acknowledge & Recognize


Are “Rewards” Dangerous?

“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”

  • Cameron, 2002

    • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002

    • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


Team Managed

Staff

Acknowledgements

Effective

Practices

Implementation

Continuous

Monitoring

Administrator

Participation

Staff Training

& Support

FCPS

CO PBS


“80% Rule”

  • Apply triangle to adult behavior!

  • Regularly acknowledge staff behavior

  • Individualized intervention for nonresponders

    • Administrative responsibility


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


Relevant &

Measurable

Indicators

Efficient

Input, Storage, &

Retrieval

Team-based

Decision Making &

Planning

Evaluation

Continuous

Monitoring

Effective

Visual Displays

Regular

Review

SWIS

FRMS


What does SWPBS look like?

  • >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged.

  • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative

  • Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior.

  • Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating.

  • Administrators are active participants.

  • Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students


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