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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut January 24, 2007 www.pbis.org www.swis.org [email protected] www.pbis.org. PURPOSE

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school wide positive behavior support getting started

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

University of Connecticut

January 24, 2007

www.pbis.org

www.swis.org

[email protected]

slide4

PURPOSE

Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students…...

main training objectives
MAIN TRAINING OBJECTIVES
  • Establish leadership team
  • Establish staff agreements
  • Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems
  • Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS
    • Data: Discipline Data, EBS Self-Assessment Survey, Team Implementation Checklist
    • Presentation for school
  • Organize for upcoming school year
getting to these objectives
Getting to these objectives
  • Rationale, context, & features
  • Implementation practices, structures, & processes
  • Outcomes & examples
  • Brief activities & team action planning
slide7
TOP FOUR 2005

Lack of financial support (since 2000)

Overcrowded schools

Lack of discipline & control

Drug use

#1 SPOT

>2000 lack of financial support

1991-2000 drug use

<1991 lack of discipline

Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.

why bother
Why Bother?
  • In 1 year, 1 school (880) had 5100 ODRs, 1 student received 87 ODRs, & 1 teacher gave out 273 ODRs
  • 2 high schools used law enforcement to give students $113 fines for incidents of profanity
  • In 1 urban school district: 2004-05, 400 kindergartners were expelled
  • In 1 state 55% white, 73% Latino, & 88% Black 4th graders aren’t proficient readers
  • UConn has no behavior/classroom management course for teachers or administrators
  • 1st response to school violence is “get tougher”
  • In 1 K-3 school in Mar, no teacher could give reading levels of their students
  • 2nd grade student receives “body sock” & “lemon drop” therapy to treat violent school behavior
  • In 1 state 7% of “high experience” teachers & 17% of reading specialists can identify at least 2 indicators of early reading success (e.g., phonmic awareness, fluency)
  • Across nation, students who are truant are given out-of-school suspensions
2001 surgeon general s report on youth violence recommendations
2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations
  • Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance”
    • Break up antisocial networks…change social context
    • Improve parent effectiveness
  • Increase “commitment to school”
    • Increase academic success
    • Create positive school climates
  • Teach & encourage individual skills & competence
slide11

School-based Prevention & Youth Development ProgrammingCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist

  • Teach children social skills directly in real context
  • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents”
  • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems
  • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs
  • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts
  • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts
lessons learned white house conference on school safety
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety
  • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable
  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important
  • High rates of academic & social success are important
  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students
  • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterents
lessons learned white house conference on school safety1
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

Early Correlates/Indicators

  • Significant change in academic &/or social behavior patterns
  • Frequent, unresolved victimization
  • Extremely low rates of academic &/or social success
  • Negative/threatening written &/or verbal messages
competing inter related national goals
Competing, Inter-related National Goals
  • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc.
  • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning
  • Improve student character & citizenship
  • Eliminate bullying
  • Prevent drug use
  • Prepare for postsecondary education
  • Provide a free & appropriate education for all
  • Prepare viable workforce
  • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior
  • Leave no child behind
  • Etc….
sw pbs logic
SW-PBS Logic!

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable

(Zins & Ponti, 1990)

2 worries ineffective responses to problem behavior
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior
  • Get Tough (practices)
  • Train-&-Hope (systems)
worry 1 teaching by getting tough
Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough

Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”

Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”

immediate seductive solution get tough
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!”
  • Clamp down & increase monitoring
  • Re-re-re-review rules
  • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences
  • Establish “bottom line”

...Predictable individual response

reactive responses are predictable
Reactive responses are predictable….

When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief

  • Remove student
  • Remove ourselves
  • Modify physical environment
  • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
when behavior doesn t improve we get tougher
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Increased surveillance
  • Increased suspension & expulsion
  • In-service training by expert
  • Alternative programming

…..Predictable systems response!

erroneous assumption that student
Erroneous assumption that student…
  • Is inherently “bad”
  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”
  • Will be better tomorrow…….
but false sense of safety security
But….false sense of safety/security!
  • Fosters environments of control
  • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior
  • Shifts accountability away from school
  • Devalues child-adult relationship
  • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
science of behavior has taught us that students
Science of behavior has taught us that students….
  • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function

non examples of function based approach
Non-examples of Function-Based approach

“Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence

  • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.”
  • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.”
  • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
development map
Development “Map”
  • 2+ years of team training
  • Annual “booster” events
  • Coaching/facilitator support @ school & district levels
  • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data
  • Develoment of local/district leadership teams
  • State/region & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA
role of coaching
Role of “Coaching”
  • Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team
  • Local facilitation of process
  • Local resource for data-based decision making
slide28

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

4 PBS Elements

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

slide29

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

slide30

http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu

Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers.Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.

designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

general implementation process getting started

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

CO PBS

Agreements

FCPS

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide33

Team-led Process

Non-Teaching

Meetings

Family

Behavioral

Capacity

Priority &

Status

Representation

Specialized Support

Administrator

Team

Community

Data-based

Decision

Making

Administrator

Student

Teaching

Communications

Start with

Team that

“Works.”

leadership team review
Leadership Team Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • Work as team for 9 minutes
  • Complete “Establishing Team Membership” (1 p. 4-5)
  • Touch “Committee Group Work” (6)
  • Touch “Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings” (3)
  • Touch “EBS Self-Assessment Survey” (4)
  • Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your group (1 min. reports)
general implementation process

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide38

3-4 Year

Commitment

Top 3 School-

Wide

Initiatives

3-Tiered

Prevention

Logic

Agreements &

Supports

Coaching &

Facilitation

Administrative

Participation

Dedicated

Resources

& Time

general implementation process1

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide40

Self-Assessment

Efficient

Systems of Data

Management

Existing

Discipline

Data

Data-based

Action Plan

Team-based

Decision

Making

Multiple

Systems

Evidence-

Based

Practices

SWIS

office discipline referrals
Office Discipline Referrals
  • Definition
    • Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction
    • Underestimation of actual behavior
  • Improving usefulness & value
    • Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions
    • Distinction between office v. classroom managed
    • Continuum of behavior support
    • Positive school-wide foundations
    • W/in school comparisons
do we need to tweak our action plan
How often?

Who?

What?

Where?

When?

How much?

If problem,

Which students/staff?

What system?

What intervention?

What outcome?

+ If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students

+ Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment

Do we need to tweak our action plan?
discipline data review
Discipline Data Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • 8 minutes
  • Complete “Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment” Checklist (9)
  • Touch “Data-Decision Making” (B)
  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
slide50

School-wide Positive

Behavior Support

Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems

slide51

School-wide Systems

1. Common purpose & approach to discipline

2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

slide52

Classroom

Setting Systems

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged
  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Active supervision
  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum
slide53

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged
  • Active supervision by all staff
    • Scan, move, interact
  • Precorrections & reminders
  • Positive reinforcement
slide54

Individual Student

Systems

  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels
  • Function-based behavior support planning
  • Team- & data-based decision making
  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes
  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction
  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
slide55

Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment

School Rules

NO Food

NO Weapons

NO Backpacks

NO Drugs/Smoking

NO Bullying

teaching matrix activity
Teaching Matrix Activity

Classroom

Lunchroom

Bus

Hallway

Assembly

Respect Others

  • Use inside voice
  • ________
  • Eat your own food
  • __________
  • Stay in your seat
  • _________
  • Stay to right
  • _________
  • Arrive on time to speaker
  • __________

Respect Environment & Property

  • Recycle paper
  • _________
  • Return trays
  • __________
  • Keep feet on floor
  • __________
  • Put trash in cans
  • _________
  • Take litter with you
  • __________

Respect Yourself

  • Do your best
  • __________
  • Wash your hands
  • __________
  • Be at stop on time
  • __________
  • Use your words
  • __________
  • Listen to speaker
  • __________

Respect Learning

  • Have materials ready
  • __________
  • Eat balanced diet
  • __________
  • Go directly from bus to class
  • __________
  • Go directly to class
  • __________
  • Discuss topic in class w/ others
  • __________
character education
Character Education
  • Easy to change moral knowledge..... ...difficult to change moral conduct
  • To change moral conduct...
    • Adults must model moral behavior
    • Students must experience academic success
    • Students must be taught social skills for success
acknowledging sw expectations rationale
Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale
  • To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions
  • Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment
    • Planned/unplanned
    • Desirable/undesirable
  • W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors
are rewards dangerous
Are “Rewards” Dangerous?

“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”

  • Cameron, 2002
    • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002
    • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
general implementation process2

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide66

Team Managed

Staff

Acknowledgements

Effective

Practices

Implementation

Continuous

Monitoring

Administrator

Participation

Staff Training

& Support

FCPS

CO PBS

80 rule
“80% Rule”
  • Apply triangle to adult behavior!
  • Regularly acknowledge staff behavior
  • Individualized intervention for nonresponders
    • Administrative responsibility
general implementation process3

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide69

Relevant &

Measurable

Indicators

Efficient

Input, Storage, &

Retrieval

Team-based

Decision Making &

Planning

Evaluation

Continuous

Monitoring

Effective

Visual Displays

Regular

Review

SWIS

FRMS

what does swpbs look like
What does SWPBS look like?
  • >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged.
  • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative
  • Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior.
  • Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating.
  • Administrators are active participants.
  • Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students
slide72

Pre

Post

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