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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut January 24, 2007 www.pbis.org www.swis.org [email protected] www.pbis.org. PURPOSE

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School wide positive behavior support getting started

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

University of Connecticut

January 24, 2007

www.pbis.org

www.swis.org

[email protected]


School wide positive behavior support getting started

www.pbis.org


School wide positive behavior support getting started

PURPOSE

Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students…...


Main training objectives

MAIN TRAINING OBJECTIVES

  • Establish leadership team

  • Establish staff agreements

  • Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems

  • Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS

    • Data: Discipline Data, EBS Self-Assessment Survey, Team Implementation Checklist

    • Presentation for school

  • Organize for upcoming school year


Getting to these objectives

Getting to these objectives

  • Rationale, context, & features

  • Implementation practices, structures, & processes

  • Outcomes & examples

  • Brief activities & team action planning


School wide positive behavior support getting started

TOP FOUR 2005

Lack of financial support (since 2000)

Overcrowded schools

Lack of discipline & control

Drug use

#1 SPOT

>2000 lack of financial support

1991-2000 drug use

<1991 lack of discipline

Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.


Why bother

Why Bother?

  • In 1 year, 1 school (880) had 5100 ODRs, 1 student received 87 ODRs, & 1 teacher gave out 273 ODRs

  • 2 high schools used law enforcement to give students $113 fines for incidents of profanity

  • In 1 urban school district: 2004-05, 400 kindergartners were expelled

  • In 1 state 55% white, 73% Latino, & 88% Black 4th graders aren’t proficient readers

  • UConn has no behavior/classroom management course for teachers or administrators

  • 1st response to school violence is “get tougher”

  • In 1 K-3 school in Mar, no teacher could give reading levels of their students

  • 2nd grade student receives “body sock” & “lemon drop” therapy to treat violent school behavior

  • In 1 state 7% of “high experience” teachers & 17% of reading specialists can identify at least 2 indicators of early reading success (e.g., phonmic awareness, fluency)

  • Across nation, students who are truant are given out-of-school suspensions


2001 surgeon general s report on youth violence recommendations

2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations

  • Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance”

    • Break up antisocial networks…change social context

    • Improve parent effectiveness

  • Increase “commitment to school”

    • Increase academic success

    • Create positive school climates

  • Teach & encourage individual skills & competence


School wide positive behavior support getting started

School-based Prevention & Youth Development ProgrammingCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist

  • Teach children social skills directly in real context

  • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents”

  • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems

  • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs

  • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts

  • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts


Lessons learned white house conference on school safety

Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

  • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important

  • High rates of academic & social success are important

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students

  • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterents


Lessons learned white house conference on school safety1

Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

Early Correlates/Indicators

  • Significant change in academic &/or social behavior patterns

  • Frequent, unresolved victimization

  • Extremely low rates of academic &/or social success

  • Negative/threatening written &/or verbal messages


Competing inter related national goals

Competing, Inter-related National Goals

  • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc.

  • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning

  • Improve student character & citizenship

  • Eliminate bullying

  • Prevent drug use

  • Prepare for postsecondary education

  • Provide a free & appropriate education for all

  • Prepare viable workforce

  • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior

  • Leave no child behind

  • Etc….


Sw pbs logic

SW-PBS Logic!

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable

(Zins & Ponti, 1990)


2 worries ineffective responses to problem behavior

2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior

  • Get Tough (practices)

  • Train-&-Hope (systems)


Worry 1 teaching by getting tough

Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough

Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”

Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”


Immediate seductive solution get tough

Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!”

  • Clamp down & increase monitoring

  • Re-re-re-review rules

  • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences

  • Establish “bottom line”

    ...Predictable individual response


Reactive responses are predictable

Reactive responses are predictable….

When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief

  • Remove student

  • Remove ourselves

  • Modify physical environment

  • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others


When behavior doesn t improve we get tougher

When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”

  • Zero tolerance policies

  • Increased surveillance

  • Increased suspension & expulsion

  • In-service training by expert

  • Alternative programming

    …..Predictable systems response!


Erroneous assumption that student

Erroneous assumption that student…

  • Is inherently “bad”

  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”

  • Will be better tomorrow…….


But false sense of safety security

But….false sense of safety/security!

  • Fosters environments of control

  • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior

  • Shifts accountability away from school

  • Devalues child-adult relationship

  • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming


Science of behavior has taught us that students

Science of behavior has taught us that students….

  • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”

  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

    ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function


Non examples of function based approach

Non-examples of Function-Based approach

“Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence

  • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.”

  • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.”

  • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”


Worry 2 train hope

Worry #2:“Train & Hope”


Development map

Development “Map”

  • 2+ years of team training

  • Annual “booster” events

  • Coaching/facilitator support @ school & district levels

  • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data

  • Develoment of local/district leadership teams

  • State/region & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA


Role of coaching

Role of “Coaching”

  • Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team

  • Local facilitation of process

  • Local resource for data-based decision making


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

4 PBS Elements

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


School wide positive behavior support getting started

http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu

Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers.Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.


Designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%


General implementation process getting started

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

CO PBS

Agreements

FCPS

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Team-led Process

Non-Teaching

Meetings

Family

Behavioral

Capacity

Priority &

Status

Representation

Specialized Support

Administrator

Team

Community

Data-based

Decision

Making

Administrator

Student

Teaching

Communications

Start with

Team that

“Works.”


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Working Smarter


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Sample Teaming Matrix


Leadership team review

Leadership Team Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • Work as team for 9 minutes

  • Complete “Establishing Team Membership” (1 p. 4-5)

  • Touch “Committee Group Work” (6)

  • Touch “Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings” (3)

  • Touch “EBS Self-Assessment Survey” (4)

  • Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your group (1 min. reports)


General implementation process

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

3-4 Year

Commitment

Top 3 School-

Wide

Initiatives

3-Tiered

Prevention

Logic

Agreements &

Supports

Coaching &

Facilitation

Administrative

Participation

Dedicated

Resources

& Time


General implementation process1

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Self-Assessment

Efficient

Systems of Data

Management

Existing

Discipline

Data

Data-based

Action Plan

Team-based

Decision

Making

Multiple

Systems

Evidence-

Based

Practices

SWIS


Referrals by problem behavior

Referrals by Problem Behavior


Referrals per location

Referrals per Location


Referrals per student

Referrals per Student


Referrals by time of day

Referrals by Time of Day


Office discipline referrals

Office Discipline Referrals

  • Definition

    • Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction

    • Underestimation of actual behavior

  • Improving usefulness & value

    • Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions

    • Distinction between office v. classroom managed

    • Continuum of behavior support

    • Positive school-wide foundations

    • W/in school comparisons


Do we need to tweak our action plan

How often?

Who?

What?

Where?

When?

How much?

If problem,

Which students/staff?

What system?

What intervention?

What outcome?

+ If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students

+ Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment

Do we need to tweak our action plan?


Discipline data review

Discipline Data Review

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • 8 minutes

  • Complete “Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment” Checklist (9)

  • Touch “Data-Decision Making” (B)

  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)


School wide positive behavior support getting started

School-wide Positive

Behavior Support

Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems


School wide positive behavior support getting started

School-wide Systems

1.Common purpose & approach to discipline

2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Classroom

Setting Systems

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged

  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged

  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction

  • Active supervision

  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors

  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors

  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged

  • Active supervision by all staff

    • Scan, move, interact

  • Precorrections & reminders

  • Positive reinforcement


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Individual Student

Systems

  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels

  • Function-based behavior support planning

  • Team- & data-based decision making

  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes

  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction

  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment

School Rules

NO Food

NO Weapons

NO Backpacks

NO Drugs/Smoking

NO Bullying


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context

Expectations


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Expectations


Teaching matrix activity

Teaching Matrix Activity

Classroom

Lunchroom

Bus

Hallway

Assembly

Respect Others

  • Use inside voice

  • ________

  • Eat your own food

  • __________

  • Stay in your seat

  • _________

  • Stay to right

  • _________

  • Arrive on time to speaker

  • __________

Respect Environment & Property

  • Recycle paper

  • _________

  • Return trays

  • __________

  • Keep feet on floor

  • __________

  • Put trash in cans

  • _________

  • Take litter with you

  • __________

Respect Yourself

  • Do your best

  • __________

  • Wash your hands

  • __________

  • Be at stop on time

  • __________

  • Use your words

  • __________

  • Listen to speaker

  • __________

Respect Learning

  • Have materials ready

  • __________

  • Eat balanced diet

  • __________

  • Go directly from bus to class

  • __________

  • Go directly to class

  • __________

  • Discuss topic in class w/ others

  • __________


Teaching academics behaviors

Teaching Academics & Behaviors


Character education

Character Education

  • Easy to change moral knowledge..... ...difficult to change moral conduct

  • To change moral conduct...

    • Adults must model moral behavior

    • Students must experience academic success

    • Students must be taught social skills for success


Acknowledging sw expectations rationale

Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale

  • To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions

  • Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment

    • Planned/unplanned

    • Desirable/undesirable

  • W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Acknowledge & Recognize


Are rewards dangerous

Are “Rewards” Dangerous?

“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”

  • Cameron, 2002

    • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002

    • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001


General implementation process2

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Team Managed

Staff

Acknowledgements

Effective

Practices

Implementation

Continuous

Monitoring

Administrator

Participation

Staff Training

& Support

FCPS

CO PBS


80 rule

“80% Rule”

  • Apply triangle to adult behavior!

  • Regularly acknowledge staff behavior

  • Individualized intervention for nonresponders

    • Administrative responsibility


General implementation process3

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


School wide positive behavior support getting started

Relevant &

Measurable

Indicators

Efficient

Input, Storage, &

Retrieval

Team-based

Decision Making &

Planning

Evaluation

Continuous

Monitoring

Effective

Visual Displays

Regular

Review

SWIS

FRMS


What does swpbs look like

What does SWPBS look like?

  • >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged.

  • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative

  • Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior.

  • Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating.

  • Administrators are active participants.

  • Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students


School wide positive behavior support getting started

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