Means of egress exit routes subpart e
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Means of Egress Exit Routes Subpart E مسالك الهروب. From 29 CFR 1910.35 To 29 CFR 1910.38.

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Means of Egress Exit Routes Subpart E مسالك الهروب

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Means of egress exit routes subpart e

Means of EgressExit RoutesSubpart Eمسالك الهروب

From

29 CFR 1910.35

To

29 CFR 1910.38


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

This Subpart is about ensuring that when people need to have a safe and efficient means of leaving a building or facility under emergency situations, that means will be there and they will have minimal problems finding it and using it.

The entire Subpart E is promulgated from NFPA 101 Life Safety Code.

للتأكد من وجود وسائل هروب آمنة و مخارج للطوارىء كافية لإخراج شاغلى المبنى فى حالات الطوارىء

المرجع لهذه المواصفات هو: NFPA 101 وهى المواصفات الخاصة بإنقاذ الأرواح

المقدمة


29 cfr 1910 35

Means of Egress:

It is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way, and consists of three separate and distinct parts:

1- The way of exit access

2- The Exit,

3- The exit discharge.

مسالك الهروب:

هى مسارات الإنتقال التى يسلكها شاغلو المبنى ولا يوجد بها أية عوائق من أية نقطة بالمبنى إلى الطريق العام وتتكون من ثلاثة أجزاء:

مسار الوصول إلى المخرج

المخرج

منفذ صرف المخرج

تعريفات29 CFR 1910.35


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

مسار الوصول إلى المخرج


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

المخرج


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

منفذ صرف المخرج


Exit access is that portion of a means of egress which leads to an entrance to an exit

Exit Accessمسار الوصول للمخرج Is that portion of a means of egress which leads to an entrance to an exit


Access to exits

Access to Exits

  • Mirrors must not be placed on or near exit doors

  • عدم تركيب مرايات بالقرب من مخارج الطوارىء

  • Routes of exit access must never be toward a high hazard location, unless effectively shielded

  • الطريق إلى المخرج يجب ألا يكون من خلال أماكن عالية الخطورة ما لم تكن هذه الأماكن قد تم عزلها.

  • Minimum width of any way of exit access is 28 inches

  • الطريق إلى المخرج يجب ألا يقل عرضه عن 28 بوصة (70 سم)


Exterior routes of exit access

Exterior Routes of Exit Access

  • Permanent, reasonably straight route of travel

  • يجب أن تكون مسارات الحركة للوصول للمخرج مسارات دائمة ويفضل أن تكون مسارات مستقيمة

  • No obstructions of exterior access route

  • يجب ألا توجد أية عوائق فى مسارات الحركة للوصول للمخرج

  • No dead ends longer than 20 feet

  • المسافة بين النهاية المسدودة ومسار الوصول إلى المخرج أو مدخل المخرج القريب تسمى مسافة النهاية الميتة والتى يجب ألا تزيد عن 20 قدم (6 متر)


Unobstructed access

Unobstructed Access

  • Maintain exit routes free of obstructions

  • Exit route cannot require travel to a dead end

  • Exit route cannot go through a room that might be locked


Exit route capacity and dimensions

Exit Route Capacityand Dimensions

  • Must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served

  • Capacity must not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge

  • Ceiling must be at least 7-½ ft. high with no projection reaching a point less than 6 ft.-8 in. from floor

  • An exit access must be at least 28 in. wide at all points


Exit routes must have adequate capacity size

Exit routes must have adequate capacity & size

  • Exit routes must be at least:

    • 6 feet, 8 inches high

    • 28 inches wide

7b


Exit route capacity and dimensions1

7-½ ft.

6 ft.- 8 in.

Exit Route Capacity and Dimensions

  • Ceiling must be at least 7-½ ft. high with no projection reaching a point less than 6 ft.- 8 in. from floor

  • An exit access must be at least 28 in. wide at all points

1910.36 (g)(1) and (2)


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

ExitالمخرجIs that portion of a means of egress which is separated from all other spaces of the building or structure by construction or equipment to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge


Means of egress general 29 cfr 1910 37

Means of Egress, General29 CFR 1910.37

  • Protective Enclosure of Exits:

    When an exit is protected by separation from

    Other parts of the building, the separating

    Construction shall meet the following:

    1- Three Stories or less – 1hr. Fire resistance

    2- Four or more stories – 2hrs. Fire resistance


Exit routes b asic requirements

Exit enclosure

Two - hour fire resistance – rating for four or more stories.

Exit Routes:Basic Requirements

An exit must be separated by fire resistant materials.

One - hour fire resistance - rating:three or fewer stories

1910.36(a)(2)


Three stories or less

Three Stories or Less


Four stories or more

Four Stories or More


Positive pressure stairs

Positive Pressure - Stairs


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

منفذ صرف المخرجExit DischargeIs that portion of a means of egress between the termination of an exit and a public way.


Exit discharge

Exit discharge

. . . must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside . . .(This area) must be large enough . . .

Exit

Discharge

Offices Storage

Exit access

Discharge

Exit

Fabricating shop

1910.36 (c)(1) and (2)


29 cfr 1910 36 general requirements

29 CFR – 1910.36General Requirements

  • Requirements that apply to all buildings:

  • Shall have exits sufficient for prompt and convenient escape of occupants in emergency.

  • Building structure shall not cause danger to occupants during period necessary for escape.


Continued

Continued

3-There shall be no locks or devices to prevent

emergency egress except in specialized facilities.

4-Means of egress shall be clearly visible and understandable to occupants who are physically and mentally capable to know the direction of escape.

5-Minimum ceiling height of 7 feet, 6 inches

6- Projections from the ceiling (lights, etc.) must be at least 6 feet, 8 inches from the floor


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

Emergency exit locked


Continued1

Continued

7-Any doorway or passageway not constituting an exit or way to occupants to reach an exit, shall be clearly marked “Not an Exit”.

8-Adequate and reliable illumination shall be provided for all exit facilities in every building or structure.

9- Signs clearly visible with the word “EXIT” in plain letters at least 6 inches high and at least a ¾” stroke width


Exit marking

Exit Marking

  • Each exit must be clearly visible and marked with an “Exit” sign

  • Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the door


Exit routes must be marked

Exit routes must be marked

  • Each exit must be clearly visible and marked with a sign that says:

9a


Not an exit

Not an Exit


Exit markings

Exit Markings

  • Illuminated by a light source at least 5 foot-candles on the illuminated surface

  • Exit signs are not to be obscured by furnishings, decorations, etc.


Requirements for alarm systems

Requirements for alarm systems

  • Workplaces must have operable employee alarm systems

  • Alarms must have distinctive signals to warn employees of fire or other emergencies

10a


Maintenance

Maintenance

  • Maintenance is important to prevent protective device failures or impeded travel during an emergency.

  • Every required exit, way of approach thereto, and way of travel from the exit into the street or open space shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency.


Maintenance1

Maintenance

  • Every automatic sprinkler system, fire detection and alarm system, exit lighting, fire door, and other item or equipment, where provided, shall be continuously in proper operating condition.


Maintenance requirements

Maintenance requirements

  • Keep the following in proper working order:

    • sprinkler systems

    • alarm systems

    • fire doors

    • exit lighting

    • other safeguards to protect employees

11b


General guidelines

LESSON 2

GENERAL GUIDELINES

Width and capacity of means of egress

  • Level egress components: 100 persons/unit (Including Class A ramps)

  • Inclined egress components: 60 persons/unit (Including Class B ramps)


Exit routes width and capacity

Exit Routes Width and Capacity

  • Capacity is a measure of persons per exit width. To understand capacity, it is important to understand the term exit width.

  • Means of egress shall be measured in exit width units of 22 inches.

  • Fractions of an exit width unit shall be counted as:

    • Zero if the fractional unit is less than 12 inches

    • One-half if the fraction is greater than 12 inches and less than 22 inches.


Egress capacity and occupant load

Egress Capacity and Occupant Loadحمل الإشغال

  • When capacity has been determined for each means of egress, the projected occupant load for the means of egress must be calculated.

  • Capacity of means of egress shall be sufficient for occupant load of any space served.


Continued2

Continued

  • Occupant Load is the maximum number of persons that may be in a space at any time.

  • The occupant load in any building thereof shall not be assumed to be less than the number determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the occupant load factor for individual occupancies.


Continued3

Continued

  • Capacity of the exits at a floor can be based on individual floor occupant loads (not additive).

  • Some important occupant load factors:

  • Classroom area20 Ft21.9 m2

  • Research Labs50 Ft24.6 m2

  • Offices100 Ft29.3 m2

  • General and High

  • Hazard industrial100 Ft29.3 m2


Number of means of egress

Number of Means of Egress

  • The minimum number of means of egress from any story or portion thereof shall be Two. (Remote from each other)

  • The minimum number of means of egress:

  • Occupant Load more than 500 but less than 1000:3

  • Occupant Load more than 1000:4


Number of means of egress1

Number of Means of Egress


The number of exit routes must be adequate

The number of exit routes must be adequate.

Remotely located to provide options for evacuation

  • Normally two or more depending on

    • the size of the building,

    • its occupancy, or

    • the arrangement of the workplace

1910.36(b)


Travel distance to exits

Travel Distance to Exits

  • Distance to exits shall be measured from the most remote point subject to occupancy.

  • Travel distance to at least one exit shall not exceed 200 Ft. (60 m) in buildings not sprinklered or exceed 250 Ft. (76 m) in buildings protected through – out by approved supervised Sprinkler System.


Travel distance

Travel Distance


Emergency plans

Emergency Plans


B written and oral emergency action plans

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans.

An emergency action plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and available to employees for review.

However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

An emergency action plan must include at a minimum:

  • Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan1

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(2) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments;


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan2

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(3) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operationsbefore they evacuate;


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan3

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(4) Procedures toaccount for all employeesafter evacuation;

Verify that employees are safe.


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan4

Fire

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(5) Procedures to be followed by employeesperforming rescue or medical duties; and


C minimum elements of an emergency action plan5

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(6) The name or job title of every employee who may be contactedby employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan.

What do I do??

We do this!


D employee alarm system

(d) Employee alarm system.

An employer must have and maintain an employee alarm system.


D employee alarm system1

(d) Employee alarm system.

. . .The employee alarm system must use a distinctive signal for each purpose and comply with the requirements in § 1910.165.


E training

Fire

Warden

EAP

(e) Training.

An employer must designate and train employees to assist in a safe and orderly

evacuation of

other employees.


F review of emergency action plan

EAP

Me

Me

Too

Informing

employees

(f) Review of emergency action plan.

An employer must review the . . . EAP. . . with each employee covered by the plan:

(1) When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to a job;

(2) When the employee's responsibilities under the plan change; and

(3) When the plan is changed.


Emergency action plan

Emergency Action Plan

Know what to do BEFORE

an emergency occurs!


Means of egress exit routes subpart e

Know where YOU are supposed to

go if an evacuation occurs.


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