Governing Clean Development. Prof. Peter Newell Contact: [email protected] Background. ESRC Climate Change Leadership Fellowship: 2008-2011 Set of research activities over 3 years Research : Field work, interviews & questionnaires Workshops & training events PG conference
1. worldWhich features of the actors, institutions and policy-making processesinvolved in the governance of clean development are resulting in effective outcomes in terms of climate action and developmental benefits, which are not and why? (and what can be done about it!)
2. Why do common international initiatives produce such uneven impacts and outcomes once mediated by national and local level institutionsand policy processes?Big Questions
a) Coordinationand coherence among the ‘providers’ of CD
b) Questions of autonomy and power to steer and direct project and investment flows in CD on the part of CD ‘recipients’
c) Processualissues of participation and consultation of other ‘stakeholders’ in relation to identifying energy needs and delivering projects + ownership
d) Managing the conflicts and trade-offs between social and environmental costs and benefits associated with projects and investments and between investors and host communities
e)Competing mandates: reducing compliance costs over contributing to sustainable development; a market? a development fund? a renewables promotion mechanism?
f) Distributional issues: the circulation of CD finance within and between countries.
Who governs? world
Project Developers, Funds, Investors, NGOs
Executive Board for new methodologies
Letter of Approval
Issuance of CERs
Executive Board, CDM Registry Administrator
Administrative TaxIn the world of the CDM
less than 30 percent of the World Bank’s lending to the energy sector has integrated climate considerations into project decision-making. As late as 2007, more than 50 percent of the World Bank’s $1.8 billion energy-sector portfolio did not include climate change considerations at all (WRI 2008)
Multinational Climate Change Fund?
How do they govern? world
Different mandates, Constituencies, Resource bases
Accountability ties, Styles of consultation, Regions of operation
Complex, overlapping forms of CD with uneven outcomes
Public world governance of public finance
Bilateral and multilateral aid
Public governance of private finance
Prototype Carbon Fund
Climate Investment Funds
Private governance of private finance
Voluntary Carbon Standard
Supply side governance
‘Governance from above’
‘Governance from below’
Demand side governance
‘The broad range of actors that cooperate and play an active role in the success of the operations of the fund, ranging from public and private participants to country officials, private entities in non-Annex 1 as well as Annex 1 countries, private verifiers and NGOs, are crucial for the PCF’s success. Only because all these actors play an integral role in making the PCF work, in applying and revising its rules and broadening its impact, can the PCF design and implement successful projects’.
Bears all hallmarks of broader forms of neo-liberal environmental governance:
An interesting case of a country with worldenormous potential to advance clean development but currently has very few projects registered, particularly in comparison to its neighbour Brazil.
Establishing why this is the case and in turn, addressing what can be done about it will be critical if Argentina is to fulfill its commitment to control carbon emissions; a commitment that will require a reduction of emissions of between 2-10% compared with the expected level of emissions.
Argentina has begun establishment of a legal framework to support and promote the use of renewable energy in the country. The objective of Argentina’s renewable energy law is to promote renewable energy electricity generation and technology research, demonstration, and implementation. Argentina’s renewable energy policy calls for 8% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources in 10 years. Future renewable energy installations include geothermal, tidal, biomass, landfill gas, and biogas facilities as well as large hydro facilities (over 30 MW).
Beyond potential for a vast increase in the uptake of renewables, the forestry and agriculture sectors present untapped potential.ARGENTINA
SOUTH AFRICA world
……do not pertain to most of the world most of the time yet often underpin policy models and academic theory
On whose behalf? world
‘If it operates within the current policy perversity in which the Kyoto Protocol and CDM exist alongside massive North-South financial flows to fossil fuels, then it will fail. A real solution to climate change and sustainable development must divert these flows, not create carbon markets alongside them’.
(CDM Watch 2004:8)