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به نام خدا. بنام خدا عباس بهرامی عضو هیات علمی گروه بهداشت حرفه ای . دانشکده بهداشت دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان [email protected] اهداف یادگیری : انتظار میرود دانشجویان در پایان جلسه بتوانند: 1- ارگونومی را تعریف کنند. 2- اهداف ارگونومی را بیان کنند. 3- اجزای ارگونومی را توضیح دهند.

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slide2

بنام خدا

عباس بهرامی

عضو هیات علمی گروه بهداشت حرفه ای . دانشکده بهداشت

دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان

[email protected]

slide3

اهداف یادگیری : انتظار میرود دانشجویان در پایان جلسه بتوانند:

1- ارگونومی را تعریف کنند.

2- اهداف ارگونومی را بیان کنند.

3- اجزای ارگونومی را توضیح دهند.

4- بیماریهای مرتبط با ارگونومی را نام ببرند.

5- عوامل مرتبط با مشکلات اسکلتی – عضلانی را شرح دهند.

ergonomics

ERGONOMICS

What it is and why you should be interested in it

ergonomics comes from

ERGONOMICS comes from

ERGOS = Greek for work

NOMOS = natural law

other words for ergonomics
Other words for Ergonomics
  • Human Factors (American)
  • Human Engineering
slide9
تعريف ارگونومی
  • ارگونومی علم و مهارت طراحی مشاغل و محيط های کار برای تطابق با توانائيها و محدويت های انسان.
  • ارگونومی به مفهوم “تناسب کار با فرد”است
  • ارگونومی علم متناسب کردن شرايط محيط کار و نيازمنديهای شغل با توانائيهای فرد است.
  • استراتژی: ارگونومی توانائيها و محدويت های جسمانی و روانی کارگر را که با ابزارآلات،تجهيزات،روشهای کار،وظايف و محيط کار در تعامل است مورد توجه و بررسی قرار می دهد.
ergonomics is a study of work
Ergonomics is a study of work
  • Word “Ergonomics” coined in 1949
  • Focus on man-machine interaction
  • Originally concerned with the military applications, particularly aeronautics
human factors
Human Factors

“Human Factors” traditionally has focused on people’s behavior as they interact with equipment and their environment and on human size and strength capabilities.

Human Factors has also been applied to the design of consumer products. Examples of products which have incorporated human factors principles include:

  • the “Reach” toothbrush;
  • automobile interiors/instrumentation;
  • adjustable chairs;
  • garden tools.
slide12

ارگونومی بيشتر بر روی اين موضوع بحث می کند که انجام کار چگونه بر انسان اثر می کند و برای پاسخ به پرسشهای مطرح واکنشهای فيزيولوژيک بدن در برابر کارهای جسمانی ،عوامل محيطی مانند گرما،صدا،روشنايی،ارتعاش،نوبت کاری و غيره را مورد مطالعه قرار می دهد. در ارگونومی بر روی روشهای کاهش خستگی تاکيد می گردد.

.

slide13
اهداف ارگونومی بهبود کيفيت زندگی انسان

رفاه

ارگونومی

بهره وری و کارايی

توليد

فيزيولوژيکی

روانی

سلامتی و ايمنی

slide14

برای دستيابی به اهداف ارگونومی بايد به ويژگيهای سه مولفه زير توجه شود:

فرد

محيط

کار

slide15
ويژگيهای انسانی

ويژگيهای انسانی را به سه دسته زير تقسيم می کنند:

فيزيکی : اندازه و ابعاد بدن،قدرت جسمی

فيزيولوژيک :دستگاه قلبی عروقی و تنفسی

روانی:ادراک حافظه،پردازش اطلاعات

انسانها در اين ابعاد متفاوت هستند.

  • ارگونومی اين ويژگيها را ارزيابی و اندازه گيری و از نتايج بدست

آمده برای تناسب و تطابق بيشتر انسان و محيط و کارش استفاده می کند.

  • ميزان تطابق و تناسب
slide16
ارگونومی يک دانش چند رشته ای است
  • آناتومی و فيزيولوژی
  • روانشناسی
  • مهندسی
  • پزشکی
  • جامعه شناسی
  • بيومکانيک
  • ايمنی و بهداشت حرفه ای
slide17

Every year thousands of workers are injured while lifting, pushing, and pulling all manner of heavy and/or bulky objects.

slide18

Soft-tissue injuries can occur over many weeks or months (as with tendonitis) or can happen instantly (as in a car accident, during a fall, or while lifting heavy loads).

Typically, recovery is slow, and in some cases full recovery is never realized.

slide19

The goal of this module is to present the reader with a number of ways to reduce soft-tissue injuries (such as muscle strain, tendonitis and low back pain), and to stress the importance of injury prevention through work practice changes, engineering solutions, and hazard awareness.

Let’s start by taking a look at a common site of ergonomic injury - the back.

slide20

People involved in manual materials handling often experience low back discomfort or pain in the lumbar region of the spine.

7 cervical (neck) vertebrae

12 thoracic (middle back) vertebrae

5 lumbar (low back) vertebrae

Lumbar Spine

Sacrum

Coccyx (tailbone)

slide21

Spinal Cord

Vertebra

Facet Joint

Disc

Inner - disc material

Ruptured Disc

Nerves

This diagram depicts a herniated disk. Inner disk material (purple) may press on spinal nerves causing a variety of symptoms.

slide22

The risk of low back injury can be reduced by using the following lifting recommendations:

  • avoid placing objects either very high or very low.
  • purchase supplies in containers with reduced size and weight.
  • provide handles to improve grip.
  • design the job to reduce twisting.
  • eliminate bending and/or stooped postures.
  • provide mechanical assistance.
slide23

Too high

Avoid high and low object placement, especially as the weight and/or size of the object increases.

Too high

Too low

slide24

The use of mechanized equipment is encouraged, but heavy equipment is not always available or suited to the site.

slide25

When lifting heavy and/or bulky objects manually, be sure to:

  • test the object’s weight before lifting it.
  • keep the object close to the body.
  • avoid twisting and bending.
  • avoid rapid, jerky movements.
  • ask for assistance from a co-worker when appropriate.
slide28

Poor lifting technique

Good lifting technique

slide29

The safest lift is no lift. Look for ways to eliminate lifts altogether.

In this case it may be practical to slide the seed bag to the truck tailgate, cut a hole in the bag, and let the seed fall into the spreader.

slide30

The lifting posture depicted at right is often referred to as a “squat lift.”

The squat lift is a good choice for many lifting tasks.

When using the squat lift, keep the spine “straight” (use the “tail out” posture), while bending at the knees and hips.

slide31

While a good choice for many lifting tasks and often recommended, the squat lift (right) has limitations and is not the best technique for every situation.

People with weak leg muscles may not be able to use this technique and those with “bad” knees may be reluctant to lift in this manner.

slide32

A popular alternative to the squat lift is the “power” lift (near right). With the power lift, the legs are bent, but not as much as with the squat lift (far right).

With the power lift there is minimal spinal flexion (bending). Most or all of the bending should occur at the knees and hips.

slide33

It’s also perfectly acceptable to break the load down and make several trips with more manageable loads.

slide34

The box at right weighs 57 pounds. The weight and bulk of this container makes it risky to handle manually. If a lift truck or hoist is not practical, the container size and weight should be reduced.

Often a supplier will balk at making such changes - only to admit after instituting them - that the changes improved safety and productivity at their facility.

slide36

With proper equipment, heavy loads can be easily manipulated with little strain placed on muscle-tendon units.

slide39

Good technique, combined with assistance from a coworker, can significantly reduce the lifting hazard.

slide40

With any lifting task, a variety of risk-reduction strategies should be considered.

Filling the bottom of this bin with a few inches of solid foam would reduce the amount of bending required.

slide41

Some lifting tasks are quite awkward due to object size and shape. Removing bench seats from vans is one such task. Minimize the force of the lift by lifting one end at a time. Let gravity assist with the lift by letting the bench slide over the bumper.

1

2

3

slide42

When installing the bench, avoid lifting the entire unit by sliding the bench up over the bumper. Lift with the legs, bend at the knees & hips, and use the “tail out” posture. Use slow steady motion. Jerking the object may lead to injury. Assistance from a coworker is encouraged.

1

2

3

slide43

As mentioned previously, the best lift is no lift. The task shown is tire rotation.

Both tires are removed. Then, one at a time, the tires are rolled along the hydraulic lift platform. A very short lift (inset) gets the wheel back on the wheel hub.

slide44

“Hand” tools such as this drum dolly reduce lifting demands. This in turn reduces task time, the odds of injury, and the metabolic energy cost of the work.

slide45

Good housekeeping is just as important as good ergonomics.

Slips, trips and falls account for a large percentage of workplace injuries.

slide46

Awkward postures (inset) can be tough on the body if they must be maintained. This oil-filling operation is kept short by using an efficient oil-delivery system.

Task automation often simultaneously improves task ergonomics and reduces labor costs.

slide47

Of jobs that are tough on the low back, “scooping” is one of the worst.

Straight knees and rounded back are a recipe for trouble.

slide48

To reduce the risk of low back injury, take small scoops and use legs for at least some of the lifting. Keep the spine “straight” (tail out) and bend with knees and hips rather than with the spine.

slide49

A variety of techniques are available to reduce the likelihood of soft-tissue injury.

Back, arm and shoulder strains can be reduced by pushing objects vs. pulling them.

Pushing reduces risk.

Pulling increases risk.

slide50

Human thumbs are not well suited to high forces.

The pinch grip (1 & 2) should be minimized or avoided altogether.

A two handed fingertip grip (3) is an improvement, but it would be best to place the fingers under the container (4).

1

2

3

4

1

slide51

Case study: Improved ergonomics results in improved productivity for a soil media task.

“Old” system:

1. clod busting

2. pouring soil

3. screening soil

4. mixing media

5. moving media

6. media clean-up

1

2

3

4

5

6

slide52

New system:

1. loading pulverizer

2. pulverized soil

3. screening soil

4. mixing media

5. hydraulic lift

6. unloading media

1

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

slide53

The old system (top) involved high energy expenditure, highly repetitive motions, and awkward postures.

The new semi-automated system (bottom) eliminates many of these ergonomic risk factors and has paid for itself through productivity gains.

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

slide54

Please also consider the importance of task planning in a sound ergonomics program.

Bringing proper tools to the work site will go a long way toward minimizing soft tissue injuries.

Additionally, task difficulty and time are reduced.

slide55

If you are experiencing soft tissue pain or discomfort, be sure to seek the advice of a health care provider.

In particular, physical therapists can provide detailed instruction in proper body mechanics and can teach these principles and techniques in person.

slide56

This module has detailed ergonomic basics of manual materials handling.

For more information please see the other ergonomics e-books on the EH&S web page at http://www.ehs.iastate.edu/ih/ergo/ergo.htm.

Additionally, EH&S staff are available for on-site consultation. Contact us at 294-5359.

scope of human factors engineering
Scope of Human Factors Engineering
  • Different levels of study and intervention:
    • Micro-level
      • Physical design of tools,

human-computer interface,

physical environment

    • Macro-level
      • Organizational design,

job design, change management

slide58
عوارض جسم‍ی ناش‍ی از به هم خوردن چرخه شبانه روزی در نوبتكار‍یهای چرخشی

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