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Geoscience. Unit 1 – Foundations of Geoscience, Metric System and Earth Chemistry. Earth Science/Geoscience. What is it? Why should we study it?. Who am I and what does Geoscience have to do with it?. Read and highlight the handout “Why Earth Science?”

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Geoscience

Geoscience

Unit 1 – Foundations of Geoscience, Metric System and Earth Chemistry


Earth science geoscience

Earth Science/Geoscience

What is it?

Why should we study it?


Who am i and what does geoscience have to do with it

Who am I and what does Geoscience have to do with it?

  • Read and highlight the handout “Why Earth Science?”

    • Answer the following questions (minimum 4-5 sentences per question):

      1. Who you are as a person? Tell me about yourself.

      2. How does earth science affect you personally?

      3. What you are most interested in learning about this year and why?


Careers related to earth science

Careers related to Earth Science

  • If I love Geoscience, what kind of job could I get?

  • Homework: Research and list 15 different careers related to geoscience/earth science. Write one brief sentence for each describing what the job entails.


Some more class foundations

Some more class foundations

  • Review class/course expectations

  • Get to know your textbook


Class foundations continued

Class foundations continued

  • Shape Up!

  • Group textbook scavenger hunt


Scientific method

Scientific Method

Unit One: Scientific Method


How do scientists study

How Do Scientists Study?

Scientific Inquiry always begins with…….

OBSERVATION


What is science

What is science?

  • Have you ever had a question about how something works?

    • If you answered yes to this questions than you have behaved in a similar manner as a scientist.

      Science is about understanding how the universe works and the reasons for why things work the way they do. Science is a body of knowledge and an organized method for finding answers to problems.

    • Why is Las Vegas so hot and dry?

    • Why are some lavas that erupt smooth and flat, and others are round and pillow-like?


The scientific method

The Scientific Method

  • The process by which a scientist finds an explanation to an event.

    It is ONE way of approaching and solving a problem, or answering a question, that is logical and straightforward and can be applied to both everyday situations and specialized research topics.


Steps to the scientific method

Steps to the Scientific Method

  • Ask a Question

  • Do Background Research

  • Construct a Hypothesis

  • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment

  • AnalyzeYour Data and Draw a Conclusion

  • Communicate Your Results


Steps to the scientific method1

Steps to the scientific method

  • Question: What is your purpose?

  • Research: What is already known about this topic?

  • Hypothesis:Based on your research what do you predict is going to happen.

  • Experiment: Test your predictions.

  • Analyze: Analyze your Data

  • Conclusion: Make the simplest conclusion possible based on the analysis of your data


Must be able to test a hypothesis

Must be able to test a hypothesis!!!!

  • A scientific hypothesis must be testable!

  • This means there must be a way to prove the hypothesis wrong


Are these scientific hypotheses

Are these scientific hypotheses?

  • Atoms are the smallest particle of matter.

  • The universe is surrounded by a second universe, the existence of which cannot be detected by scientists.

  • The Incredible Hulk is the best super-hero ever in the world.


Geoscience

  • A hypothesis that is tested over and over without being contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • If a scientist finds evidence that contradicts a hypothesis, law, or principle, then the law, hypothesis or principle must be changed or abandoned.

  • Scientists must accept their findings even if they would like them to be different.


Experiments

Experiments

  • In experiments we have a control and 2 types of variables

    • Control is an trial of the experiment that is closest to the natural conditions

    • Independent variable is the variable the scientists manipulates.

    • Dependant variable results from the manipulation of the experiment


How do scientists study1

How Do Scientists Study?

Scientific Inquiry always begins with…….

OBSERVATION

It is also an important part of an experiment.


Vocabulary

VOCABULARY

OBSERVATION – use of the senses to gather and record information about structures or processes in nature


Observation

OBSERVATION

QUALITATIVE OBSERVATION – descriptive explanation of quality of something such as shape, color, texture….

Red dot, Oval shaped, Smooth surface


Observation1

OBSERVATION

QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATION – of, relating to or involving the measurement of quantity or amount

  • DATA!!!

    Mass (50 g), Volume (35 mL),Temperature (25 degrees C), Time (2 hr)


Scientific measurement

Scientific Measurement

Collecting data often requires measurement…What can you measure?

  • Length (distance)

  • Volume

  • Mass (weight)

  • Temperature

  • Time


What is earth science

What is Earth Science?

  • Earth Science is the name for the group of sciences that deals with Earth and its neighbors in space 4 areas of study

    • Geology: Study of Earth, its matter, and the processes that form and change Earth

      • Physical Geology- Study of materials that make up Earth and forces that shape the planet

      • Historical Geology- Study of physical and biological changes of our planet over time

    • Meteorology: Study of weather and the forces and processes that cause it.

    • Astronomy: Study of objects in space

    • Oceanography: Study of the Earth’s oceans


Formation of the earth

Formation of the Earth

  • Earth is one of ? planets in our solar system

  • Earth is believed by scientists to have formed at the same time as the other planets.

    • Nebular hypothesis- Earth formed from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. This cloud was made up of mostly hydrogen and helium and very few heavier elements.


Density stratification

Density Stratification

  • Over time the heavier elements sank into the core of the Earth while the lighter, less dense materials floated toward the surface

  • This led to the division of layers within the Earth system


Earth s four spheres

Earth’s Four Spheres

  • Hydrosphere- The water portion of our planet

  • Atmosphere- The gaseous portion of our planet

  • Geosphere- The rocky solid portion of our planet

    • Further divided into- the core, mantle, and crust

  • Biosphere-Includes all life on Earth


Layers of the earth

Layers of the Earth


Forces that affect our earth

Forces That affect our Earth

  • Destructive Forces- weathering and erosion work to wear away high points and flatten out the surface

  • Constructive Forces- mountain building and volcanism build up the surface by raising the land and depositing new material in the form of lava


Earth as a system

Earth as a System

  • System can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole

  • Earth system is powered by 2 sources

    • One is the sun- which drives the external processes that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and at Earth’s surface

    • Second is Earth’s Interior- heat remains in the core and mantle of the Earth from the time it was formed


Geoscience

  • QUESTIONS?


Observations

Observations

An observation is the gathering of information by using our five senses:

  • Sight

  • Smell

  • Hearing

  • Taste

  • Touch

    There are two types of observations:

  • Qualitative

  • quantitative


  • Observation2

    OBSERVATION

    QUALITATIVE OBSERVATION – descriptive explanation of quality of something such as shape, color, texture….

    Red dot, Oval shaped, Smooth surface


    Observation3

    OBSERVATION

    QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATION – of, relating to or involving the measurement of quantity or amount

    • DATA!!!

      Mass (50 g), Volume (35 mL),Temperature (25 degrees C), Time (2 hr)


    Which is better

    Which is better?

    • Both types of observations are valuable in science. In an experiment though, quantitative observations can be precisely and objectively compared.

    • Qualitative: The road is long. (describes)

    • Quantitative: The road is 5 km long. (measures)

    • Some things are easier to quantify than others. Scientists use innovative ways of turning qualitative to quantitative.


    Inferences

    Inferences

    • Inferences are an explanation for an observation that you have made.

    • They are based on your past experiences and prior knowledge.

    • Inferences are often changed when new observations are made.

    • Again, observations are information we gather directly through our five senses….inferences help explain these observations.


    Here are some examples

    Here are some examples!!

    • Observation: The grass on the school’s front lawn is wet.

    • Possible Inferences:

      • It rained.

      • The sprinler was on.

      • There is dew on the grass from the morning.

      • A dog urinated on the grass!

    • All of these inferences could possible explain why the grass is wet. They are all based on prior experiences. We have all seen rain, sprinklers, morning dew, and dogs going to the bathroom.


    Here are some examples1

    Here are some examples!!

    • Observation: The school alarm is going off.

    • Possible Inferences:

      • The school is on fire.

      • We are having a fire drill.

      • A student pulled the fire alarm.

    • Again, these are all logical explanations for why the fire alarm is going off.


    Metric system

    Metric System


    Scientific measurement1

    Scientific Measurement

    Collecting data often requires measurement…What can you measure?

    • Length (distance)

    • Volume

    • Mass (weight)

    • Temperature

    • Time


    History

    History

    • At the end of the 18th century in France, scientists created the metric system.

    • It was designed with several features in mind.

      • 1. that each type of measurement (mass, volume, and length) would only have one unit; for example, length would be measured in meters instead of in feet, inches, rods, ells, hands, or any other specialized measures that may or may not be easy to convert between

      • 2. the metric system would be based on units of 10 for easy conversions


    Who uses the metric system

    Who uses the Metric System?

    • SCIENTISTS (and science students)

    • Almost every country EXCEPT the United States.

      • The US uses the English unit of measurement which is based on the lengths, weights, areas and volumes of everyday objects.

  • Using the same system of measurement gives scientists a common language.

  • ·    In 1960 at the International Convention, the metric system was adopted as the “International system of Units” or SI.

  • ·SI is based on units of ten.


  • Length

    Length

    • The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m)

    • The meter is = to 39.4inches


    Volume

    Volume

    • Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.

    • The basic unit of volume is the liter (L)

      • The liter is usually used for measuring the volume of liquids

    • The volume of solids can be measured in

      cubic centimeters (cc or cm3) = a cube that measures 1cm x 1cm x 1cm

    • 1cc is exactly equal to in volume to 1 ml


    Geoscience

    Mass

    • Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object

    • The basic unit of mass is the gram (g)


    Weight

    Weight

    • Weight is a measure of the attraction between two objects due to gravity

    • Your weighton another planet may differ due to the amount of gravity, however your mass will always be the same


    Density

    Density

    • The relationship between mass and volume is called density

    • Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.

    • Density = Mass

      Volume


    Density practice problem

    Density Practice Problem

    • A carton of milk weighs 1000 grams and takes up 100cm3 of space, what is it’s density? DON’T FORGET YOUR UNITS!!

    • Density = Mass = 1000g = 10 g/cm3 Volume 100cm3


    Temperature

    Temperature

    • In the metric system, temperature is measured on the Celsius scale.

    • On this temperature scale, water freezes at 0o C and boils at 100oC.

    • The metric system was set in such a way that there was exactly 100 degrees between freezing and boiling point of water.

    • Normal body temperature is 37oC. Room temperature is about 21oC.


    Metric prefixes used in conversion

    Metric Prefixes used in Conversion

    Kilo

    Hecta

    Deca

    Meter / Liter / Gram

    deci

    centi

    milli


    How can you remember this

    How can you remember this?

    King

    Henry

    Died

    Monday

    Chocolate

    Milk

    Drinking


    How do you convert from one unit to another

    How do you convert from one unit to another?

    • For every space that you move you move the decimal one place to the left or the right

    K – H – Da - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    A sample problem

    A Sample Problem…

    3450.

    3.45 Kg = _____g

    1

    2

    3

    K – H – D - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    Another sample problem

    Another Sample Problem

    .756

    756 ml = ______L

    2

    3

    1

    K – H – D - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    Dimensional analysis

    Dimensional Analysis

    Dimensional Analysis is another way of converting units.

    It is often used to convert units from

    English to Metric or vise versa.

    Your friend in England runs 3 kilometers a day while you run 3000 yards a day.

    Using kilometers which of you runs a longer distance?


    Steps for dimensional analysis

    Steps for Dimensional Analysis

    • Step 1: Determine the given unit and the desired unit.

    Given: yards (3000)

    Desired: kilometers


    Step 2 find the relationship between the units and consider the possible conversion factors

    Step 2: Find the relationship between the units and consider the possible conversion factors

    Known:

    12 inches / 1 foot

    1 yard / 3 feet

    2.54 centimeters / 1 inch

    100 centimeters / 1 meter

    1000 meters / 1 kilometers


    Geoscience

    Step 3: Choose the conversion factor whose denominator has the same units as your given value to start with.

    Start with 1 yard

    3 feet


    Geoscience

    Step 4: Write the original value next to the conversion factor with a multiplication sign between them. Cancel like terms.

    3000 ydsx3 ftx12inx2.54cmx1m x1km

    1yd 1ft 1in 100cm 1000m

    =


    Step 5 multiply the resulting equation

    Step 5: Multiply the resulting equation.

    3000 ydsx3 ftx12inx2.54cmx1m x1km

    1yd 1ft 1in 100cm 1000m

    1) Multiply across the top:

    274,320

    100,000

    2) Multiply across the bottom:

    3) Divide top by bottom:

    2.7432 km


    Solution to equation

    Solution to equation

    3000 yards = 2.7432 km which is less than 3km. Therefore your friend in England runs more than you do per day.


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