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Crises of the 14 th Century a.k.a. The Late Middle Ages (1300-1500). Introduction. 3 Crises define the period. Hundred Years War Church Corruption Black Death. Together, they destroyed the Age of Faith.

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Crises of the 14 th Century a.k.a. The Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)

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Crises of the 14th Century

a.k.a.

The Late Middle Ages

(1300-1500)


Introduction

3 Crises define the period

  • Hundred Years War

  • Church Corruption

  • Black Death

Together, they destroyed the Age of Faith

And paved way for (1) European Renaissance, then (2) Protestant Reformation, then (3) The Modern World


Hundred Years War

(1337-1453)

Black Death (1347-1352)

Church Corruption

Each Event Worsened The Others


Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

  • War between Kings of France and England over who should be the King of France

  • Actually lasted 117 years

  • Significant primary source is Jean Froissart’s Chronicle.


Hundred Years War (1337-1453)—Causes

  • Salic Law outlawed royal inheritance through women (in France, not England)

  • KOF Charles IV died in 1328

  • No male heirCousin becomes king, Philip IV, the Fair

  • KOE Edward III believes he should be KOF

  • Sent letter to Philip saying he will fight for throne

  • Invaded France in 1337


Hundred Years War (1337-1453)—Course

  • 2 halves

    • English Period (1337-1429)

    • Final French victory (1429-1453)

  • English Period

    • Sluys (naval)

    • Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356), Agincourt (1415)

    • Keys to victory: Paid mercenary armies, English longbowmen

  • French Period

    • Jeanne d’Arc motivates French

    • Charles VII defeats English at Orleans (1429)

    • Momentum shifts until English driven from France


Hundred Years War (1337-1453)—Effects

  • Mercenaries become essential part of European warfare (question: what do unemployed mercenaries do?)

  • Gunpowder artillery signals end of castle and knight warfaremedieval warfare

  • Birth of nation-state (decline of local identity)


Philip III

(died 1285)

Charles

Count of Valois

(died 1325)

Philip IV

The Fair

(died 1314)

Philip V

(died 1322)

Charles IV

(died 1328)

Isabella

(died 1358)

Edward II

(died 1327)

  • Royal family tree of France

  • Note:

  • Women can’t inherit throne

  • Red=King of England

  • Black=King of France

Philip VI

(died 1350)

Edward III

(died 1377)


100YW, when Edward III invaded France

100YW, after Black Death, Poitiers, Crecy


100YW, Just prior to Jeanne d’Arc

100YW, at end


From Froissart’s Chronicle. Picture of Battle of Crecy (1346)


From Froissart’s Chronicle. Picture of Battle of Poitiers (1356)


From Froissart’s Chronicle. English use of artillery


From http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/manuscrits/aman1.htm

From Froissart’s Chronicle. English use of artillery


Black Death—Basics

  • Pandemic (worldwide epidemic)

  • Bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis

  • Spread through Europe between 1347-1352

  • Returned periodically until 18th Century


Black Death—Origination

  • Probably originated in East Asia

  • Slowly moved westward by traders along the Silk Road

  • Merchants from Italian city of Genoa brought it from Asia Minor to Italy in 1347


Black Death—Transmission

  • Bacteria in the bloodstream

  • Rats carried the fleas that lived among humans (and on Genoese ships)

  • Flea bites pass it between humans


Black Death--Cures

  • Europeans didn’t understand health and hygiene

  • In Age of Faith, assumed cause was religious

  • Blamed sinfulness of Humanity

  • Also Jews, Muslimskilled them

  • Remedies: garlic necklaces, dancing, self flagellation


Black Death--Effects

  • 1/3 to 1/4 of Europe died

  • Not consistent (some places spared, other places completely destroyed)

  • Labor shortagesWages and prices rise

  • Feudalism and manorialism permanently weakened

  • Art and literaturepessimistic


Church Corruption—Causes

  • Popes claimed supreme secular and spiritual power growing (e.g., Pope Boniface VIII’s Unam Sanctam)

  • Theologians like Wycliffe and Hus begin challenge the legitimacy of this authority

  • Independent religious movements break out in Europe (e.g., Hussites, Waldensians, Albigensians)

  • Only a matter of time before secular rulers challenge Church’s authority


Church Corruption—Beginning of Avignon Papacy

  • First major challenge from KOF

  • KOF Philip IV decided to take a stand against Pope and taxed French clergy

  • Pope Boniface VIII responded by threatening interdict

  • Philip ignored Boniface’s threat, not believing Pope’s authority or credibility

  • Philip sent knights to seize Boniface in Rome, died within a month

  • Fearing Philip’s wrath, cardinals selected a French clergyman, Clement V, moved to Avignon in 1308 (southern French town)


Church Corruption—Avignon Papacy

  • Papacy in Avignon from 1308 to 1378

  • All French popes, under increasing control by KOF

  • Popes spent enormous amounts on papal palace and lavish clothing

  • Demanded taxes from bishops and abbeys (who in turn demanded taxes from worshippers)

  • Appointed relatives to church positions

  • This behavior destroyed the credibility and legitimacy of Pope for many


  • Church Corruption—Great Schism

  • In 1378, Pope Gregory XI returned Papacy to Rome, recognizing damage done to authority and credibility

  • Died soon afterwards

  • Romans rioted, threatened papal electors to ensure a Roman became next pope

  • That was Pope Urban VIsuspicious, arrogant, violent temper

  • French electors decided to elect their own insteadPope Clement VII (called the anti-pope), and moved back to Avignon

  • 1378-14142 popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon (and at one pope one in Pisa)

  • In 1414, clergy realized damage this was doing to Church’s credibility

  • Council of Constance to bring an end to the schism

  • Deposed all popes, elected compromise Pope Martin V


How did the Hundred Years’ War worsen . . .

  • The Black Death

  • Destructiveness of war literally weakened people’s ability resist the disease

  • Kings focused on war not helping people

  • Movement of armies helped spread disease

  • Church Corruption

  • Church claimed authority over kings

  • Tried to stop fighting

  • Could not—looked powerless (no credibility) in eyes of many


How did the Black Death worsen . . .

  • Hundred Years’ War

  • Destructiveness of war literally weakened people’s ability resist the disease

  • Kings focused on war not helping people

  • Movement of armies helped spread disease

  • Church Corruption

  • People believed sinfulness caused Black Death

  • Church failed to prevent sin

  • Clergy more interested in money, power than in helping those suffering from the Black Death

  • Some clergymen fled rather than stay and help the sick


How did Church Corruption worsen . . .

  • The Black Death

  • People believed sinfulness caused Black Death

  • Church failed to prevent sin

  • Clergy more interested in money, power than in helping those suffering from the Black Death

  • Some clergymen fled rather than stay and help the sick

  • Hundred Years’ War

  • Church claimed authority over kings

  • Tried to stop fighting

  • Could not—looked powerless in eyes of many


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