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Ch. 18 - Waves & Sound. II. The Nature of Sound Speed of Sound Human hearing Doppler effect Seeing with sound. A. Speed of Sound. 344 m/s in air at 20°C Depends on : Type of medium travels better through liquids and solids can’t travel through a vacuum Temperature of medium

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ch 18 waves sound
Ch. 18 - Waves & Sound

II. The Nature of Sound

  • Speed of Sound
  • Human hearing
  • Doppler effect
  • Seeing with sound
a speed of sound
A. Speed of Sound
  • 344 m/s in air at 20°C
  • Depends on:
    • Type of medium
      • travels better through liquids and solids
      • can’t travel through a vacuum
    • Temperature of medium
      • travels faster at higher temps
b human hearing
B. Human Hearing

sound wave

vibrates ear drum

amplified by bones

converted to nerve impulses in cochlea

b human hearing1
B. Human Hearing
  • Pitch
    • highness or lowness of a sound
    • depends on frequency of sound wave
    • human range: 20 - 20,000 Hz

ultrasonic waves

subsonic waves

b human hearing2
B. Human Hearing
  • Intensity
    • volume of sound
    • depends on energy (amplitude) of sound wave
    • measured in decibels (dB)
b human hearing3
B. Human Hearing

DECIBEL SCALE

120

110

100

80

70

40

18

10

0

c doppler effect
C. Doppler Effect
  • Doppler Effect
    • change in wave frequency caused by a moving wave source
  • moving toward you - pitch sounds higher
  • moving away from you - pitch sounds lower
c doppler effect1

lower frequency

higher frequency

C. Doppler Effect

Stationary source

Moving source

Supersonic source

waves combine to produce a shock wave called a sonic boom

same frequency in all directions

d seeing with sound

Medical Imaging

SONAR

“Sound Navigation Ranging”

D. Seeing with Sound
  • Ultrasonic waves - above 20,000 Hz
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