The civil war
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The Civil War. Part II: The Course. Slavery……. One of the top reasons why our Southern states decided to secede from the Union http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEyt5B3r-pk. Oak Alley Plantation. -Built in the 1830s Was home to over 100 slaves . Slave Cabin-tin sided building.

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The Civil War

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The civil war

The Civil War

Part II: The Course


Slavery

Slavery……

  • One of the top reasons why our Southern states decided to secede from the Union

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEyt5B3r-pk


Oak alley plantation

Oak Alley Plantation

-Built in the 1830s

Was home to over

100 slaves


Slave cabin tin sided building

Slave Cabin-tin sided building


Slave quarters

Slave quarters


Plantation slaves georgia

Plantation Slaves-Georgia


Cotton field tennessee

Cotton Field-Tennessee


Slave family savannah georgia

Slave family-Savannah, Georgia


Slave punishment

Slave punishment


How the war began

How the War Began

  • Fort Sumter

    • Remained under federal control.

    • Lincoln had to decide whether or not to send it supplies. Sending supplies would risk war, but didn’t want to give in either

    • Confederacy decided to attack before any supplies could arrive

    • For 34 hours the Confederacy fired shells into the fort until it surrendered


Fort sumter video

Fort Sumter Video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9p7V7GrHjE


Lincoln s first move

Lincoln’s First Move

  • Lincoln asked the Union states for 75,000 militia to put down the South’s uprising

  • Upper Southern states did not want to go against South Carolina and decided to join the Confederacy (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas)

  • The secession of wealthy and populous Virginia, strengthened the Confederacy and led to Robert E Lee leaving the US and joining the Confederacy


Choosing sides

Choosing Sides

  • Maryland stayed in the Union due to Pro-Union leaders

  • Kentucky stayed in the Union because of a Confederate invasion

  • Missouri and Delaware stayed in the Union

  • Western counties of Virginia broke away and formed West Virginia and this part returned to the Union

  • 24 states in the Union, 11 in the Confederacy


Strengths of each side

Strengths of Each Side

Confederacy

More people

85% of factories located there

Double the railroad

Almost all naval power and shipyards belonged in the North

Abraham Lincoln’s leadership

Knowledgable and experienced war leaders

Fighting in the South (homeland and near supplies)

How does this compare to the colonists in the American Revolution

Union


Union strategy

Union Strategy

  • Anaconda Plan-smother the South’s economy

  • Naval blockade of the South’s coastline-no goods go in or out

  • Gain control of the Mississippi to split the Confederacy into two

  • Immediate attack on Richmond, Virginia-Lincoln ordered an invasion in summer 1861


Anaconda plan

Anaconda Plan


Confederate strategy

Confederate Strategy

  • Began with defensive approach-didn’t want to conquer North, just wanted to be left alone

  • Tried to withold cotton from the market to get foreign support but European nations didn’t want to get involved

  • Later took offensive and tried for big victories to weaken Northern spirit and attitude


Confederate soldiers

Confederate soldiers


Lincoln s second step

Lincoln’s second step

  • Union invasion of Virginia

  • Needed to defeat Confederate troops at Manassas, Virginia near a creek called Bull Run

  • Confederates were victorious under leadership of General Thomas J “Stonewall” Jackson

  • North realized it had underestimated its opponent and Lincoln send the 90-day militia home and called in a real army of 5000,000 volunteers for 3 years


Ugliness of war

Ugliness of War

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DICi3uV9Tbo


Battle of bull run

Battle of Bull Run

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhweHadC9Mc


Ulysses s grant contributes

Ulysses S Grant Contributes

  • Used ironclad gunboats, captured Ft Henry and Ft Donelson on Cumberland River-opened river access to heart of the South (northern Alabama)

  • Rallied troops after a surprise attack near Shiloh church in Tennessee-Union was victorious but with a high number of casualties

  • “I can’t spare this man-he fights”—said by Abe Lincoln about General Grant


Robert e lee contributes

Robert E Lee Contributes

  • Leads Confederates to a 2nd victory at Bull Run which pushes the Union troops back to D.C.-this ends Union threat in Virginia

  • Decides to invade the North by crossing the Potomac into Maryland

  • Met Union army at Antietam Creed for the bloodiest battle in all of American History

  • Lost about 1/3 of his men and withdrew to Virginia


Grant or lee who would you choose

Grant or Lee? Who would you choose?

  • http://www.history.com/topics/ulysses-s-grant/videos#grant-or-lee


Antietam

Antietam

  • One of the bloodies battles of the Civil War

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tomcN9qC2wo


Abraham lincoln biography

Abraham Lincoln-biography

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLZ9ZRBNLB0


Emancipation proclamation

Emancipation Proclamation

  • What is it???

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTBXUaM6t58


Lincoln and emancipation

Lincoln and Emancipation?

  • Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free or emancipate slaves

  • Hesitated because of lack of support for emancipation from Northern Democrats, Republicans and the 4 slave states still in the Union

  • Didn’t want slavery to further divide the nation

  • By the summer of 1862, decided in favor of emancipation in order to weaken the South by taking away slaves fighting in their army

  • Waited until after the battle of Antietam


Emancipation proclamation1

Emancipation Proclamation

  • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1st, 1863

  • Freed all slaves in the Confederacy-very few were actually free because Union soldiers were not close enough to enforce this

  • Only freed slaves in Confederacy because the Constitution allowed it as a military strategy

  • Symboloic measure making the goal of war Liberation

  • Encouraged African-American men to fight for the Union


Emancipation proclamation2

Emancipation Proclamation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GigKIyX1fDE


Gettysburg the beginning of the end

Gettysburg…The Beginning of the End

  • After several Union losses and the death of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, troops from both sides met at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

  • Union General Meade had 90,000 troops vs. 75,000 troops under Confederate General Lee

  • Battle went on for 3 days with each side trying to get control of the high ground

  • 2 “round top” hills, Cemetery Ridge and Culp’s Hill


Gettysburg continued

Gettysburg…continued

  • Turning point was Pickett’s Charge-a direct attack to the middle of the Union line by Confederate troops-turned out to be a deadly mistake

  • Union Failed to counterattack and finish off Lee and his army once and for all

  • Still there was reason for the Union to celebrate, the losses for the Confederacy were greater-they lost about 1/3 of Lee’s army


Pickett s charge

Pickett’s Charge

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSraOEtrhWY


Gettysburg

Gettysburg

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsszvmuZBR4


Gettysburg address

Gettysburg Address

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mkjj0gMRUxE


How did it all end

How Did it All End?

  • Grant had defeated Confederate troops at Vicksburg, Mississippi after a siege of the area

  • Union General Sherman took control over Atlanta and waged total war against troops and everything that supported the enemy-crops, RR lines, towns

  • Sherman took Savannah, Georgia


How did it all end1

How Did it All End?

  • Grant fought terrible battles on his way to Richmond. Lost many men but would not retreat

  • Finally laid seige to Richmond and eventually Lee pulled out and left Richmond undefended. Union troops took over Richmond, took down the Confederate flag and raised up a US flag

  • Lee and Grant meet at the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange a Confederate surrendor


Ending of the civil war video

Ending of the Civil War video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duAB4O1lJhg


Part iii

Part III

  • THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


Some effects of the war on the u s

Some effects of the war on the U.S.

  • 13th Amendment passed in 1865, which banned slavery in the United States

  • Lincoln was assassinated 5 days after the surrender at Appomattox by John Wilkes Booth

    • Lost a great leader with experience and political skills during a challenging time

    • Northern economy thrived with manufacturing, Southern economy was a disaster with plantations destroyed and livestock dead, labor system was also gone


Reconstruction begins

Reconstruction Begins

  • Reconstruction: the federal government’s process to readmit the Confederate states to the Union

  • Lasted from 1865-1877

  • Lincoln promised to be understanding and may pardon Confederate officials and allow Confederate states to form governments and send representatives to Congress

  • Andrew Johnson took over after Lincoln was killed


Legacy of the war

Legacy of the war

  • http://www.history.com/topics/african-american-leaders-during-reconstruction/videos#legacy-of-the-civil-war


Radical reconstruction

Radical Reconstruction

  • Divided the south into 5 military districts ran by an army commander

  • Members of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights

  • Southern states had to approve new constitutions that gave the right to vote to all men including African Americans and they must ratify the 14th Amendment


Southern state constitutions

Southern State Constitutions

  • Southern voters chose delegates to write new state constitutions

  • ¾ were Republicans

  • ¼ Scalawags-poor white farmers from the South

  • ¼ Carpetbaggers-white Northerners accused of rushing to South for political power or wealth


Southern state constitutions1

Southern State Constitutions

  • ¼ African Americans half had been free before the war, 80% could read

  • New constitution set up public schools and gave the vote to all adult males led to voters in all Southern states to approve their new constitutions. The former Confederate states were allowed back in the Union

  • During this time African Americans served in state legislatures and held places in Congress


Rights of freedman

Rights of Freedman

Able to leave plantations and travel freely

Could marry legally

Attended school

Provide for their families instead of their owner

Some were able to own land


Grant s strengths

Grant’s strengths

  • Ku Klux Klan continued to terrorize African Americans

  • President Grant urged Congress to pass strict laws against the Klan

  • Anti-Klan bill lead to the arrest of thousands of Klansmen, attacks on Black voters declined

  • Grant won a 2nd term


Failures for grant and republicans

Failures for Grant and Republicans

  • Scandal with government positions, bad choices of presidential advisers, and financial panic led to decrease in focus and care for Reconstruction

  • Democrats began to gain more control

  • Supreme court began to undo some of the laws put in place to encourage equality, weakened Reconstruction


End of reconstruction

End of Reconstruction

  • Compromise of 1877—ANOTHER COMPROMISE—Hayes became President and Southern Democrats won the following:

    • Federal troops removed from the south

    • Land would be provided for railroads to link the south with the west

    • Southern officials will get federal money for construction and improvement projects


End of reconstruction1

End of Reconstruction

  • Hayes must appoint a Democrat to his cabinet

  • Democrats promise to respect African Americans civil and political rights

  • Success of Reconstruction is still questionable: African Americans gained more rights but still endured much violence and prejudice


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