There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self
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There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one's self. Benjamin Franklin Poor Richard’s Almanac. 1. Our primate selves. Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey (original title) 1988. Huxley, 1863.

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There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one's self.

Benjamin Franklin

Poor Richard’s Almanac


1 our primate selves

1. Our primate selves

Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey(original title)

1988


Huxley 1863

Huxley, 1863

  • "It is quite certain that the ape which most nearly approaches man is either the Chimpanzee, or the Gorilla..." (p86).


Modern cladistics supports huxley

Modern cladistics supports Huxley

  • synapomorphies = elongated skulls, shortened but stout canine teeth, changes in upper jaw, fusion of certain bones in wrist, enlarged ovaries and mammary glands, changes in muscular anatomy


Sarich and wilson 1967

Sarich and Wilson, 1967

  • Injected rabbits with human serum albumin, let rabbits make anti-human antibodies

  • Removed blood serum from rabbits (with anti-human antibodies)

  • Mixed rabbit’s anti-human antibodies with purified serum albumin from humans and variety of other primates

  • ID increases among phylogenetically more distant relatives and at a constant rate through time; it is a sort of molecular clock

  • Strongest immunological reaction to human, then chimp, then gorilla, then others.

  • Concluded: Humans and chimps were nearest relatives and diverged 5 mya.


Sarich and wilson 19671

Sarich and Wilson, 1967


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

  • A host of molecular papers in the 1990’s said humans and chimps are the nearest relatives

  • “Gorillas not in the midst”


March 2011

March 2011


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

  • Perelman et al., 2011:

  • 34,927 bp

  • 54 nuclear genes

  • 191 taxa, including 186 primates representing 61 genera

  • 90% of all primate genera


Perelman et al 2011

Perelman et al., 2011

6.6 mya

8.3 mya


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

From Perelman et al., 2011


Gracile australopithecines

Gracile Australopithecines


Robust australopithecines

Robust Australopithecines


Early humans

Early humans


Recent humans

Recent Humans


Some fossil species were contemporaries these two species are both from koobi fora kenya 1 7 mya

Some fossil species were contemporaries:These two species are both from KoobiFora, Kenya, 1.7 mya


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

Cladogram adding Ar. ramidus to images of gorilla, chimpanzee, and human, taken from the frontispiece of Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, by Thomas Huxley

C O Lovejoy et al. Science 2009;326:73-106

Published by AAAS


2 out of africa

2. Out of Africa


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

Out of Africa

Drift associated with migration should cause a reduction of genetic diversity as compared to an ancestral population…


3 what about neandertals

3. WhataboutNeandertals?


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

2010

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPWm58ACMto

Stop at 5:20


There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

Homo neanderthalensis was distributed across Europe, the Middle East and Western Asia when Homo sapiens arrived 80,000 ya(The two species split ca. 270-440,000 ya)


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