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There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one's self. Benjamin Franklin Poor Richard’s Almanac. 1. Our primate selves. Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey (original title) 1988. Huxley, 1863.

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There are three things extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self

There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one's self.

Benjamin Franklin

Poor Richard’s Almanac


1 our primate selves
1. Our primate selves

Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey(original title)

1988


Huxley 1863
Huxley, 1863

  • "It is quite certain that the ape which most nearly approaches man is either the Chimpanzee, or the Gorilla..." (p86).


Modern cladistics supports huxley
Modern cladistics supports Huxley

  • synapomorphies = elongated skulls, shortened but stout canine teeth, changes in upper jaw, fusion of certain bones in wrist, enlarged ovaries and mammary glands, changes in muscular anatomy


Sarich and wilson 1967
Sarich and Wilson, 1967

  • Injected rabbits with human serum albumin, let rabbits make anti-human antibodies

  • Removed blood serum from rabbits (with anti-human antibodies)

  • Mixed rabbit’s anti-human antibodies with purified serum albumin from humans and variety of other primates

  • ID increases among phylogenetically more distant relatives and at a constant rate through time; it is a sort of molecular clock

  • Strongest immunological reaction to human, then chimp, then gorilla, then others.

  • Concluded: Humans and chimps were nearest relatives and diverged 5 mya.


Sarich and wilson 19671
Sarich and Wilson, 1967



March 2011
March 2011 chimps are the nearest relatives


  • Perelman et al., 2011: chimps are the nearest relatives

  • 34,927 bp

  • 54 nuclear genes

  • 191 taxa, including 186 primates representing 61 genera

  • 90% of all primate genera


Perelman et al 2011
Perelman et al., 2011 chimps are the nearest relatives

6.6 mya

8.3 mya


From Perelman et al., 2011 chimps are the nearest relatives


Gracile australopithecines
Gracile chimps are the nearest relatives Australopithecines


Robust australopithecines
Robust Australopithecines chimps are the nearest relatives


Early humans
Early humans chimps are the nearest relatives


Recent humans
Recent Humans chimps are the nearest relatives


Some fossil species were contemporaries these two species are both from koobi fora kenya 1 7 mya
Some fossil species were contemporaries: chimps are the nearest relativesThese two species are both from KoobiFora, Kenya, 1.7 mya


Cladogram chimps are the nearest relatives adding Ar. ramidus to images of gorilla, chimpanzee, and human, taken from the frontispiece of Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, by Thomas Huxley

C O Lovejoy et al. Science 2009;326:73-106

Published by AAAS


2 out of africa
2. Out of chimps are the nearest relativesAfrica


Out chimps are the nearest relatives of Africa

Drift associated with migration should cause a reduction of genetic diversity as compared to an ancestral population…


3 what about neandertals
3. What chimps are the nearest relativesaboutNeandertals?


2010 chimps are the nearest relatives

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPWm58ACMto

Stop at 5:20


Homo chimps are the nearest relativesneanderthalensis was distributed across Europe, the Middle East and Western Asia when Homo sapiens arrived 80,000 ya(The two species split ca. 270-440,000 ya)


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