Energy in thermal processes
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Energy in Thermal Processes. Heat Calorimetry Phase Changes. Heat and Internal Energy. _______ _______ , U , is energy of atoms and molecules of a system Includes KE of translation, rotation, vibration Includes PE of chemical/electrical bonds

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Energy in Thermal Processes

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Energy in thermal processes

Energy in Thermal Processes

Heat

Calorimetry

Phase Changes


Heat and internal energy

Heat and Internal Energy

  • _______ _______, U, is energy of atoms and molecules of a system

    • Includes KE of translation, rotation, vibration

    • Includes PE of chemical/electrical bonds

  • ______, Q, is transfer of energy between system and environment due to temperature difference ΔT


Units of heat

Units of Heat

  • Historically defined in terms of __________ _________ of object

    • calorie (cal) – the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C

    • British thermal unit (BTU) – the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water from 63°F to 64°F

  • Heat (like work) is a transfer of energy and has SI units of ________


Specific heat

Specific Heat

  • Every substance requires a ________ amount of energy per unit mass to change T by 1°C

  • Characterize the material by its _______ heat c

  • Units are J/(kg∙°C)

  • See Table 11.1, p. 355


Calorimetry

Calorimetry

  • Use containers that are good ________ (no energy leaves/enters the container)

  • Put warmer and cooler materials in container

  • Apply conservation of ______

In general

Sign of ____ takes care of sign of Q


Latent heat and phase change

Latent Heat and Phase Change

  • Sometimes energy transfer results in changes of ____ (melting/freezing = _____, boiling/condensing = _________)

  • _____________ does not change

  • Characterized by latent heat L

  • See Table 11.2, p. 360; units are J/kg

Use + if ______ energy, – sign if _______ energy


Example ice to steam

Example: Ice to Steam

Fig. 11.3, p. 361


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