Spettroscopia Raman e Grandi Sorgenti (Synchrotron Facilities)
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Spettroscopia Raman e Grandi Sorgenti (Synchrotron Facilities) Marco Milanesio Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria, Italy E-Mail: [email protected] http://www.mfn.unipmn.it/~marcomi

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  • Spettroscopia Raman e Grandi Sorgenti (Synchrotron Facilities)

  • Marco Milanesio

  • Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate

  • Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria, Italy

  • E-Mail: [email protected]

  • http://www.mfn.unipmn.it/~marcomi

  • Nuove Applicazioni della Spettroscopia Raman nei Minerali

  • Parma 12 Febbraio 2009

What is a Facilities)synchrotron facility?

Storage ring producing high brilliance X-ray (1000-1000000 more intense than in normal diffractometers)

Standard snbl beam line at esrf
Standard SNBL Beam line at ESRF Facilities)




PD +




Optics A+B

Typical Facilities) business at synchrotron facilities :


The good news: Synchrotron allows X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) in situ studies (down to ms time res.)

Environmental chambers are used to condition the sample environment: Temperature, pressure, atmosphere, irradiation, laser in situ during XRPD

When a phase undergoes a phase transition its diffraction pattern changes


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IN SITU XRPD Facilities) synchrotron facilities?

1) The availability of 3rd generation synchrotrons allowed the use of XRPD experiments at in situ conditions.

2) The addition of an extra dimension, such as time or temperature allowed the investigation of structural properties during solid-state transformations

Template Burning inside TS-1 and Fe-MFI Molecular Sieves: An in Situ XRPD Study. Milanesio, M.; Artioli, G.; Gualtieri, A. F.; Palin, L.; Lamberti, C.J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2003; 125(47); 14549-14558


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Why Facilities)Ramanand synchrotron facilities?

Sometime overcame by Raman!!

The bad news: the limits of in situ XRPD

  • disordered moieties

  • light elements (Z < 4)

  • nanoparticles

  • surface reactivity

  • gel phases

  • liquid phases

  • amorphous phases

  • evolved gas


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Raman information Facilities)

Raman spectroscopy can give complementary information to XRPD, being extremely sensitive to small structural distortions, to changes in the hydration/protonation states, to surface modifications and to changes in the charge/defect distribution and short-range ordering.

Why Facilities)SimultaneousRAMAN/XRPD?

Because of the perfect space, time and reaction-coordinate correlation between Raman and XRPD and no bias due to different sample holder/conditioning modes

  • Many non-simultaneous Raman-Xray diffraction/absorption studies have been performed for their complementarities.

  • In situ induced sample modifications with multiple external stimuli such as:

    • Temperature and/or

    • Pressure and/or

    • UV or Visible Light, X-ray’s and/or

    • Oxidizing or reducing environments

    • ….

  • On samples that show kinetic and non-reversible behaviors on one or more of these stimuli

Difficult or impossible to synchronize separate XRPD and Raman experiments

The first example - Phase transitions of isobutyl-silsesquioxane ([email protected], July 2004)

XRPD: phase transition from the triclinic to rhombohedral phase at 323 K

Raman spectroscopy: small variation of the peak at 775 cm-1 related to rotation of the side chain O-Si-C-C torsion angles

This case study allowed i) to test the first Raman/XRPD implementation with a NIR laser (1064 nm) and ii) to design the better setup for the permanent Raman installation at the SNBL


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Snbl layout with raman

Raman isobutyl-silsesquioxane

Excitation laser

Raman return

SNBL layout withRaman




PD +




Optics A+B

The Experimental Set-up isobutyl-silsesquioxane – Technical details

References on the simultaneous experiments

  • More info: E. Boccaleri, F. Carniato, G. Croce, D. Viterbo, W. van Beek, H. Emerich and M. Milanesio, In situ simultaneous Raman/high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction study of transformations occurring in materials at non-ambient conditions, J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 684-693.

Possible multi-technique experiments at the SNBL… isobutyl-silsesquioxane




Raman/XRPD/XAFS/Mass Spectroscopy

Raman/Single crystal XRD


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….. accessible non ambient conditions isobutyl-silsesquioxane

Gas blower + Cryostream nitrogen blower:

from 80 to 1300 K

Helium cryostat down to 5-10 K

Diamond Anvil cell: from 0 to 50 GP

Lamp- and laser- induced excitation:


Gas pumping system: from vacuum to 30 bars


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Case study 1 isobutyl-silsesquioxane - The stearate-hydrotalcite (Mg/Al layered hydroxide) thermal treatment and decomposition (almost no mineralogy!)

Example of application to a low order synthetic nanocomposite organic-inorganic material –conformational/chemical sensitivity of Raman

Case study 1 - XRPD isobutyl-silsesquioxane

At 362 K phase transition due to the swelling of the layers

A new peak appeared at 2θ=0.81° (d=42.4 Å). Its intensity increased up to 425 K and its 2θ moved to 0.72° (d=48.2 Å).


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Case study 1 - Raman isobutyl-silsesquioxane

The C-H stretching modes (2800-3000 cm-1) and the symmetric and asymmetric C-C stretching modes (at 1044 and 1110 cm-1) are sensitive to the changes in the trans-gauche conformation of the CH2 units and to the packing of the embedded phase.

The phase transition characterization isobutyl-silsesquioxane


45.0 Å


At high temperature: the chains assume folded gauche conformations and inter-digitation is reduced (Raman).

Raman/XRPD the conformational features of the organic moiety and the structural rearrangement of the inorganic moiety

31.5 Å


at RT)

At room temperature: all-trans stearate chains form an inter-digitated bi-layer while (Raman).