Industrialization. The 1 st and 2 nd Industrial Revolution. Industrialization. First Industrial Revolution- Economic change (mostly in Europe) of the late 1700s, when manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work. Second Industrial Revolution -
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The 1st and 2nd
First Industrial Revolution-
Second Industrial Revolution-
Thomas Alva Edison-
Edison was responsible for 1097 U.S. patents including: phonograph, light bulb, ticker tape, motion picture camera and many others. Often credited with shifting the U.S. to the ease of electric convenience.
He didn’t invent the car, but he revolutionized the transportation industry with mass production and the assembly line. With his Model-T, he brought cars to the common man and paid high wages to his workers.
Immigrant Working Conditions
A six year old factory worker.
Immigrants working in factories, textile mills, and coal mines had little or NO RIGHTS!
At the turn of the century, there were no labor laws. Working conditions, hours, wages, and days worked were determined by the employer.
A turn of the century textile factory
Factory work is very different from other types of labor. The introduction of the factory system had a profound effect on social relationships and living conditions. In earlier times workers and employees had close relationships. By contrast, the factory owners were considered to have discharged their obligations to employees with the payment of wages; thus, most owners took an impersonal attitude toward those who worked in their factories. This was because no particular strength or skill was required to operate many of the new factory machines.
Sweatshop – place where workers labor long hours under poor conditions for very low wages.
The owners of the early factories often were more interested in hiring a worker cheaply than in any other qualification. Thus they employed many women and children, who could be hired for lower wages than men.
These low-paid employees had to work for as long as 16 hours a day; they were subjected to pressure, and even physical punishment, in an effort to make them speed up production. Since neither the machines nor the methods of work were designed for safety, manyfatal and maiming accidents resulted.
Children as young as six years old worked hard hours for little or no pay. Children sometimes worked up to 16 hours a day, with a one-hour total break. This was a little bit on the extreme, but it was not common for children who worked in factories to work 12-14 hours with the same minimal breaks. Not only were these children subject to long hours, but also, they were in horrible conditions. Large, heavy, and dangerous equipment was very common for children to be using or working near. Many accidents occurred injuring or killing children on the job.
Children were paid only a fraction of what an adult would get, and sometimes factory owners would get away with paying them nothing.Orphans were the ones subject to this slave-like labor. The factory owners justified their absence of payroll by saying that they gave the orphans food, shelter, and clothing, all of which were far below par.
Children as young as six would work between 12 and 16 hour days, with breaks totaling less than an hour. Children caught sleeping on the job were often beaten.
Entire families had to work
In order to survive, entire families had to work. A factory worker usually woke up at 4 am in order to be on the factory floor by 5 am. Mornings were often the only time an entire family could be together. The workday for men, women, and children was between 12 and 16 hours per day, and in some cases, particularly in the steel mills, the work week was seven days. If you were lucky, you got Sundays off, but you were expected to work whenever you were needed.
Immigrant labor was one of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution. Without the efforts and sacrifices of immigrants to this country of every race, religion, color, and creed, the United States could never have become the world power it is today.