Urban water
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Urban Water. Extraction Groundwater Decreased infiltration Surface water Water rights Distribution Treatment Filtering Biological agents Sludge disposal Reuse Use of grey water. Drought. Lack of significant rainfall Due to less precipitation Years Impacts Crops and livestock

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Urban Water

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Urban water

Urban Water

  • Extraction

    • Groundwater

      • Decreased infiltration

    • Surface water

      • Water rights

  • Distribution

  • Treatment

    • Filtering

    • Biological agents

    • Sludge disposal

    • Reuse

    • Use of grey water


Drought

Drought

  • Lack of significant rainfall

    • Due to less precipitation

    • Years

  • Impacts

    • Crops and livestock

    • Groundwater

    • Increased desertification

    • Economy

  • Locations

    • Sahara

    • Australia

    • U.S. (2012, 1920s, 1988)


Fire triangles

Fire Triangles

  • Fuel – Heat – Oxygen

  • Fire Behavior

    • Topography

    • Weather

    • Fuels


Fire types

Fire Types

  • Crown

  • Surface

  • Ground

  • Spotting

  • Backfire

  • Blow-up

    • Firestorm

  • Prescribed

  • Natural

  • Human-caused


Fire suppression

Fire Suppression

  • Firelines

  • Backfires

  • Water drop

  • Fire retardants

    • Colored dye

    • Chemicals

    • Clay


Firefighting jobs

Firefighting Jobs

  • Mostly seasonal

  • Engine crew

  • Helicopters

    • Transportation

    • Drop water or retardant

    • Mapping technology

  • Hotshots

  • Handcrews

  • Smokejumpers

  • Airplanes

  • Fire lookout

  • Support personnel


Yellowstone fire management history

Yellowstone Fire Management History

  • Early humans

  • European expeditions

  • 1870s – save the forests

    • Suppress all fires

  • Leopold report (1972)

    • Natural fire management

    • Two zones

  • Changed after 1988 fires

    • Education

    • Defensible space


Urban water

  • What are some of the factors that contributed to high fire danger in Yellowstone during 1988?

  • Name some reasons why the lodgepole pine “needs” fire.

  • Since the lodgepole pine is the major tree type found in Yellowstone, could you argue that fire is a natural part of the ecosystem? Why or why not?

  • How would Yellowstone Park be different with or without fire?

  • Was Yellowstone Park ruined by fire? Why or why not?

  • What does Yellowstone Park look like when those articles were written?


Daily review 5

Daily Review #5

  • Describe how the U.S.’s fire management plan has changed over the centuries.

  • Define drought, crown fire, prescribed burn, ground fire and back fire.

  • How do humans make drought conditions worse?

  • If you did/do live in a forested area, what would you do to protect your home from wildfires?

End


Bark beetles

Bark Beetles

  • Several different species

    • Mountain pine beetle

    • Douglas-fir beetle

  • Native

  • Life cycle

    • 1 year

    • Larvae feed over the winter

      • Use glycerol


Urban water

  • Types of trees

    • Large diameter damaged trees

    • Infestations = all types

  • Signs

    • Pitch tubes

    • Boring dust

    • Woodpeckers

    • Yellow to red foliage

    • Bluestain wood


Urban water

  • Control

    • Limited effect

    • Woodpeckers

    • Cold temperatures

    • Bark removal

    • No chemicals

    • Burning or burying

  • Prevention

    • Chemicals

    • Pheromones

    • Healthy forests

    • Limit infected products


Average fire year

Average Fire Year

  • 24 lightning caused fires

  • 83% burn less than 1.2 acres

  • 94% burn less than 100 acres

  • Detected at 3:03 pm


1988 fire statistics

1988 Fire Statistics

  • 9 human caused

  • 42 lighting caused

  • 36% of park effected

  • 63% of burned area due to fires started outside park

  • 300 large mammals died

  • $120 million spent fighting

  • 25,000 people involved


Creating the perfect conditions

Creating the “Perfect” Conditions

  • Wet spring

    • Lush understory

  • Rain stopped

    • Lowered moisture content

  • High winds


Urban water

You are interviewing to be the manager of the Lotsatrees National Forest. As part of your interview, the interview committee has asked you to put together a plan to manage this forest. Your plan needs to have 2 parts.

  • A plan to manage the forest on a daily basis (non-fire) conditions.

  • A plan to manage the forest once a fire has broken out. Assume the fire started to the south and wind is pushing it into your district.

    Each part of this plan must have 3 different components. Give a creative presentation to sell your plan and get hired.


Urban water

Based on the plans you heard, select the best plan (you may select your own). In a paragraph, describe which plan you selected and defend why it is the best plan for the Lotsatrees National Forest.


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