Evolution of the family
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Evolution of the Family. Evolution by Kin Selection Genetic Trait Expressed in Actor (Ego) Must Affect Genotypic Fitness of Individual Related to Actor at Locus Determining Trait Altruism, Selfishness, Mutualism. Evolution of the Family. Evolution by Kin Selection

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Evolution of the Family

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Evolution of the family

Evolution of the Family

Evolution by Kin Selection

Genetic Trait Expressed in Actor (Ego)

Must Affect Genotypic Fitness of Individual Related to Actor at Locus Determining Trait

Altruism, Selfishness, Mutualism


Evolution of the family1

Evolution of the Family

Evolution by Kin Selection

Kin-Based Altruism

Helpers at the Nest (Diploids)

Sterile Worker Caste, Eusociality (Haplo-Diploids)


Evolution of the family2

Evolution of the Family

Proximity of Relatives

Competition Among Kin

Dominant, Subordinate Offspring

Siblicide, Fratricide

Brood Reduction (By Offspring Sex)

“Weaning” Conflict


Gauthier barrette 1985 behaviour 94 128

Gauthier & Barrette. 1985. Behaviour 94:128.


Gauthier barrette 1985 behaviour 94 1281

Gauthier & Barrette. 1985. Behaviour 94:128.

Feeding of Fawns in 2 Deer Spp

As Fawns Age

Fewer Bouts

Decreasing Proportion Initiated by Mother

More Frequent Rejection by Mother

Fawn Independence Increases;

Mother Future Reproduction


Packard et al 1992 canadian j zool 70 1269

Packard et al. 1992. Canadian J. Zool. 70:1269.

Arctic Wolves

Dominant Female

Suckling Less Frequent & Bouts End Sooner as Cubs Age


Packard et al 1992 canadian j zool 70 12691

Packard et al. 1992. Canadian J. Zool. 70:1269.


Packard et al 1992 canadian j zool 70 12692

Packard et al. 1992. Canadian J. Zool. 70:1269.

Feeding of Cubs in Arctic Wolf

Standard Pattern in

Frequency, Initiation & Termination

As Offspring Age

Predict Why Close Kin “Fight?”


Parenting

Parenting

Parental Care Per Se

Traditional Darwinian Explanation

Adequate, But Can Justify via Hamilton’s Rule

Parent-Offspring Conflict:

Parent Gives Care to Offspring

Offspring Demands Parental Resource


Parent offspring conflict

Parent-Offspring Conflict

Parent-Offspring Conflict (Diploidy)

Parent Altruism

Offspring Selfishness

Close Relatives: Hamilton’s Rule (General)


Parent offspring conflict1

Parent-Offspring Conflict

If Parent Allocates Resources to Offspring:

B Benefit to Offspring

C Cost to Parent, Loss of Future Reproductive Success

r (Parent to Offspring) = 1/2


Kin selection

Kin Selection

Parent Allocate Resources to Offspring?

Hamilton’s Rule:

Increase Parent’s Inclusive Fitness

r B – C > 0, Implying

C/B < (1/2) Parental AltruismFavored


Kin selection1

Kin Selection

Offspring Demand Parental Resources?

Hamilton’s Rule Generalized:

Increase Offspring Inclusive Fitness

ES Effect on Self = B

ER Effect on Relative (Parent) = - C

r (Offspring to Parent) = 1/2


Kin selection2

Kin Selection

Offspring Demand Parental Resources?

Increase Offspring Inclusive Fitness

ES + r ER > 0

B – (1/2) C > 0;

C/B < 2 Offspring Selfishness Favored


Kin selection3

Kin Selection

C/B < ½ Parental Altruism Favored

C/B < 2 Offspring Selfishness Favored

½ < C/B < 2

Parent Should Not Be Altruistic

Offspring Should Be Selfish

Kin Conflict


Kin selection4

Kin Selection

Selfish Genes Can Lead, Evolutionarily,

To Cooperation and Altruism

Gene Spreads by Helping Other Individuals Carry Same Gene

Hamilton’s Rule;

Hamilton’s Conjecture


Kin selection5

Kin Selection

Limited Dispersal (of Newborns) Makes Neighbors Close Relatives

Enough Local Relatedness Might Lead to

Cooperation/Altruism Toward

Any Neighbor


Kin selection6

Kin Selection

Viscous Population, Low Dispersal,

Relatives = Neighbors

Limited Dispersal Also Can Make

Relatives Close Competitors

Competitive Local Conflict Over Resources Negate Effect of Kin?


Limited dispersal and kin

Limited Dispersal and Kin

Evolution of Cooperation

Relatedness Promotes (Hamilton)

Local Competition Impedes

Interaction


Local global scales

Local & Global Scales

Behavioral Interactions

Local, Ephemeral

Drive Ecological, Evolutionary Dynamics

Ecology, Evolution

Global (Population), Extended Timescale


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