Drkh a power efficient encryption protocol for wireless devices
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DRKH: A Power Efficient Encryption Protocol for Wireless Devices. El Shibani Omar Hamdan Alzahrani. DRKH.

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DRKH: A Power Efficient Encryption Protocol for Wireless Devices

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Drkh a power efficient encryption protocol for wireless devices

DRKH: A Power Efficient Encryption Protocol for Wireless Devices

El Shibani Omar

Hamdan Alzahrani


Drkh a power efficient encryption protocol for wireless devices

DRKH

  • Dynamic Re-keying Key Hopping is a simple lightweight security protocol that’s suitable for solar and battery powered devices. It implements RC4 in a way that doesn’t require intensive computations to preserve power also it insures high security in addition to low execution cost.

  • It uses a Hash function to generate session keys.

    Baraka, Eissa, Fayek, and Kholaif. “DRKH: A Power Efficient Encryption Protocol for Wireless Devices” Local Computer Networks, Sydney, NSW. IEEE. 2005.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Shared parameters

SharedParameters

  • Secret Keys [1..4]

  • Authentication Key

  • Hopping Sequence [1..4]

  • Broadcast key

  • Session counter

  • Initialization Vector [1..4]

  • Nonce

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Important notions

Important Notions

  • Session Duration:

    It represents the start and the end of a session.

  • Indicates session expiration.

  • The four session keys are no longer valid and four different ones have to be generated.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Important notions con t

Important Notions (con’t)

  • Session Keys: Session Keys are the keys used to generate the cipher stream that’s used in an XOR operation with the plaintext to generate the cipher text.

  • Generated at the beginning of each new session.

  • A hash function is used to generate them using the four secret keys and the session counter.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Link layer authentication

Link-Layer Authentication

  • STA initiate a request AP.

  • AP challenge message E(X, N1) STA.

  • STA encrypted message E(X, (N1, N2, SSID)) AP.

  • Access point decrypts the message and check the validity of nonce 1 (N1) and Service Set Identifier (SSID) if they match what access point has then it’s considered that station authenticated.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Link layer authentication con t

Link-Layer Authentication (con’t)

  • AP E(X, N2, Hopping sequence, N3, Broadcast key) STA

  • STA after receiving the message it decrypts it and verify N2. After verification is done it’s only now that AP is considered authenticated by the STA.

  • STA E( positive ACK) AP

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


The road to session keys generation

The Road to Session Keys Generation

  • The first step is to generate the four secret keys.

  • Mixing them with the session counter.

  • Using a strong one-way hash function such as SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) to generate the four session keys.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


The encryption and the decryption of a message

The Encryption and the Decryption of a Message

  • Choose the session key based on the hopping sequence.

  • The IV corresponding to the chosen session key is then incremented by one and mixed with the corresponding session key using a non-linear lookup based-table substitution.

  • The output form the previous step is then used to reinitialize RC4 state (Not KSA).

  • Then station runs the initialized RC4-PRNA(pseudo-random generation algorithm) to produce cipher stream.

  • The final step is to XOR the resulted cipher stream with the plaintext to generate the cipher text.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • In this paper a lightweight wireless security protocol, DRKH, was presented.

  • DRKH is suitable for solar and battery powerd devices.

  • The focus was mostly on the steps to generate the session keys using a one-way hash function.

  • These session keys are used for data encryption and decryption in DRKH.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


References

References

  • [1] Baraka, Eissa, Fayek, and Kholaif. “DRKH: A Power Efficient Encryption Protocol for Wireless Devices” Local Computer Networks, Sydney, NSW. IEEE. 2005.

  • [2] Jones, P. www.ietf.org. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). September 2001. Web. 16 April 2011.

  • [3] Wade, and Lawrence Washington. Introduction to Cryptography with Coding Theory. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2006. print.

DRKH/ Hamdan and El Shibani


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