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Chapter 13. Water and Erosion. Section 13.1 Water cycle – continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface and back to atmosphere Also called hydrologic cycle. Steps involved in water cycle: Evaporation – liquid water changes to vapor

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Water and Erosion

slide2

Section 13.1

  • Water cycle – continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface and back to atmosphere
  • Also called hydrologic cycle
slide3

Steps involved in water cycle:

    • Evaporation – liquid water changes to vapor
    • Transpiration – plants giving off water vapor
    • Evaopotranspiration – evaporation and transpiration combined
    • Condensation – water vapor rising into atmosphere
    • Precipitation – water falls from clouds to earth as rain, sleet, snow, hail
slide5

The continuous water cycle is what gives the earth’s its water budget

  • Precipitation is the income
  • Its balanced because the amount of precipitation = the amount of evapotranspiration and runoff
  • Factors that affect it are vegetation, rainfall, wind, amount/duration runoff
slide6

Section 13.2 river systems

  • River system is made up of a main stream and feeder streams, called tributaries
  • Land from which water runs off into these streams is called a watershed
  • In Virginia there are 13 watersheds – these watersheds drain to the Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina Sounds and Gulf of Mexico
slide8

Streams transport soil, loose rock fragments, and dissolved minerals – stream load

  • 3 forms of stream load
      • Solution – material that is removed from bedrock
      • Suspension – suspended material such as sand, silt, clay – looks muddy
      • Bed load – sediment moving along stream bed or base – pebbles/boulders
slide9

The discharge and velocity of a stream, as well as its load, affects how a stream cuts and widens its channel

  • Discharge is the volume of water moved by a stream in a given time
  • Faster the stream, higher discharge and larger load – erodes faster,
  • Slower streams, lower discharge and smaller load
slide10

Rivers develop from a youthful stage to an old – age stage

  • Youthful rivers – erodes its beds more rapidly
  • Produces V-shaped valleys with steep sides
  • Waterfalls and rapids common
  • Few tributaries
slide12

Mature streams

    • Well-established tributaries
    • Drains watershed effectively
    • Erosion occurs along the valley walls
    • Not many waterfalls and rapids
    • Meanders and oxbow lakes – water in abandoned meander
    • Old Rivers
    • Lower gradient, slower than mature river
    • Deposits sediments on land instead of eroding, flood plain formed
slide13

Stream erosion

  • Potholes – created by sand, pebbles and small boulders swirling around in whirl pools, erodes out rock and makes hole
  • Waterfalls – created when rock is undermined by stream current
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