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Main Substances found in the Body. Water (65%) Minerals (1% ). Inorganic Substances. Proteins (18%) Lipids (10%) Carbohydrates (5%) Nucleic Acids (1%). Organic Substances. Water. Most abundant component of organisms An excellent solvent Reaction medium Transport substances

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Main Substances found in the Body

Water (65%)

Minerals (1%)

Inorganic Substances

Proteins (18%)

Lipids (10%)

Carbohydrates (5%)

Nucleic Acids (1%)

Organic Substances


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Water

  • Most abundant component of organisms

  • An excellent solvent

  • Reaction medium

  • Transport substances

  • Help to maintain constant body temperature

  • Take part in chemical reactions


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Proteins

  • Most abundant organic molecules in cells

  • Main structural components of a cell

  • Serve as Enzymes & some Hormones

  • Provide Energy


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Lipids (Fats & Oils)

  • Energy store in Plants & Animals

  • Important structural component of Cell Membrane

  • Serve as some Hormones


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Carbohydrates

  • Sugars:

Provide Energy

  • Starch:

Food Reserve of Plants

  • Glycogen:

Food Reserve of Animals

  • Cellulose:

Important component of Plant Cell Wall


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Nucleic Acids

  • Include DNA & RNA

  • Store information which controls cell activities

  • DNA: Mainly in Nucleus

  • RNA: In Cytoplasm & Nucleus


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Minerals

  • Found in cells in form of Ions

  • For healthy functioning of organisms

  • Affect chemical reactions in cells

  • Plants: Obtain minerals from Soil

  • Animals: From Diet



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The concept of metabolism

  • Metabolism = all the chemical reactions taken place inside the living organisms

  • Metabolic reactions produce different life processes, e.g.

    • photosynthesis

    • respiration

    • movement

    • growth

    • reproduction


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Types of metabolism

  • Catabolism:

    • break down complex organic molecules into simpler molecules

    • e.g. respiration:gives out energy


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Types of metabolism

  • Anabolism:

    • Build up complex organic molecules from simple molecules

    • e.g. Photosynthesis:requires energy


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Types of Enzymes

  • Extracellular Enzymes

  • leave the cell & exert actions

  • outside the cell

Intracelluar Enzymes

- exert action inside the cell


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enzyme

C

A + B

Control of metabolism

  • Metabolic reactions can be controlled and speeded up by enzymes

    • metabolic reactions would be too slow to occur if no enzymes are present!


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Investigation 4.1

Detection of the presence of Catalase in Plant and Animal Tissues


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liver

potato

meat

apple

boiled liver

growing splint

A

B

C

D

E

3

5cm of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution

What is the purpose of setting up tube E ?

Ans: To see whether the catalase in the tissue can still catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide after boiling.


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liver

potato

meat

apple

boiled liver

growing splint

A

B

C

D

E

3

5cm of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution

What gas is evolved when fresh tissues are added into the hydrogen peroxide solution ?

Ans: Oxygen.


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liver

potato

meat

apple

boiled liver

growing splint

A

B

C

D

E

3

5cm of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution

Which tissue has the highest catalase activity ?

Ans: Fresh liver tissue.


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liver

potato

meat

apple

boiled liver

growing splint

A

B

C

D

E

3

5cm of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution

What conclusion can you draw from the results of this experiment ?

Ans: Catalase is produced by fresh tissues only. Boiling kills the cells and destroys the enzyme.


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Protein

Nature and properties of enzymes

  • Proteins in nature

  • Specific in action

    • one kind of enzyme will catalyse only one kind of chemical reaction

  • Biological Catalyst

Biological-found within living organisms

Catalyst-substance which can speed up

a chemical reaction


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Mechanism of enzyme action

  • Each enzyme has an active site


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Mechanism of enzyme action

  • Active site: the place where substrate binds with the enzyme

  • Each active site can only allow specific substrate to fit in


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Mechanism of enzyme action

  • The enzyme and substrate molecules combine to form a temporary structure calledenzyme-substrate complex


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enzyme-substrate complex

enzyme-product complex

product

substrate

enzyme

enzyme

Action of enzyme (Anabolic reaction)


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enzyme-product complex

enzyme-substrate complex

products

substrate

enzyme

enzyme

Action of enzyme (catabolic reaction)


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Mechanism of enzyme action

  • The product molecules are then formed and they escape from the active site

  • The active site is free to attach to other substrate molecules again ( i.e. it can be reused )



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product is called

Substrate

product

Enzyme

Lock and key hypothesis


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SHAPES DON’T MATCH is called

Lock and key hypothesis


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pH is called

Nature and properties of enzymes

  • Catalyse reversible reaction in both directions

  • Enzymatic activity is affected by temperature and pH

    • high temperature and extreme pH can denature enzymes

      ∵ protein in nature


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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • Low temperature : low kinetic energy possessed by the substrate and enzyme molecules

The enzyme becomes inactive

Lower reaction rate (and enzyme activity)



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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • Higher temperature : more kinetic energy possessed by the substrate and enzyme molecules

    Higher reaction rate (and enzyme activity)


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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • The temperature which allows the highest enzyme activity is called theoptimum temperature


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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • At temperature higher than the optimum temperature, the shape of the active site is changed

The enzyme is said to be denatured

substrate can no longer bind to the active site of the enzyme



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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • Enzymes become inactive but not denatured at low temperatures

    They can regain catalytic function when the temperature increases


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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • Denaturation is a permanent process

    When an enzyme is denatured, its catalytic function is lost permanently, and cannot be restored ( never become active again ) even it is put in lower temperature


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Effect of temperature on enzyme activity is called

  • Different enzymes may have different optimum temperature

  • The optimum temperature of many enzymes in human body is not 37oC, even though this is our body temperature!

    • Our body temperature can provide a better environment for all the enzymes in our bodies to work


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Investigation 4.2 is called

Effect of Temperature on the action of Amylase


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A1 is called

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

ice bath at 2℃

water bath at 37 ℃

water at 100 ℃

water bath at room temperature

amylase solution

starch solution

thermometer

amylase and starch solution

iodine solution

spotting tile

Why is it necessary to equilibrate the pair of test tubes under each condition for 5 minutes before mixing ?

Ans: To ensure the pair of test tubes are in the same temperature.


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A1 is called

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

ice bath at 2 ℃

water bath at 37 ℃

water at 100 ℃

water bath at room temperature

amylase solution

starch solution

thermometer

amylase and starch solution

iodine solution

spotting tile

What is the factor affecting the action of amylase in converting starch into sugar ?

Ans: Temperature.


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A1 is called

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

ice bath at 2 ℃

water bath at 37 ℃

water at 100 ℃

water bath at room temperature

amylase solution

starch solution

thermometer

amylase and starch solution

iodine solution

spotting tile

At which temperature does all the starch in the tube disappear first ?

Ans: 37 ℃.


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A1 is called

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

ice bath at 2 ℃

water bath at 37 ℃

water at 100 ℃

water bath at room temperature

amylase solution

starch solution

thermometer

amylase and starch solution

iodine solution

spotting tile

How does the activity of amylase change with temperature ?

Ans: At room temperature, amylase works but not as well as that at 37 ℃. It does not work at 2℃ and 100℃.


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A1 is called

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

ice bath at 2 ℃

water bath at 37 ℃

water at 100 ℃

water bath at room temperature

amylase solution

starch solution

thermometer

amylase and starch solution

iodine solution

spotting tile

At which temperature does amylase work best ?

Ans: 37 ℃.


Effect of ph on enzyme activity l.jpg
Effect of pH on enzyme activity is called

  • Optimum pH : the pH value at which the enzyme has the highest activity

Too extreme pH can destroy the enzymes

  • pH of medium higher or lower than optimum pH can inactivate the enzyme


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Enzyme 2 is called

Enzyme 1

Enzyme 3

Different enzymes has different optimum pH

Rate of reaction

pH



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Factors affecting enzyme action : Reactions

Substrate concentration


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Max. Rate Reactions

Rate of reaction

Substrate conc.

Factors affecting enzyme action :

Substrate concentration


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Application of Enzymes Reactions

Biological Washing Powder



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Why a cell needs transport ? Reactions

  • for obtaining useful materials, and

  • for eliminating metabolic waste

Permeability

  • living cell membrane- selectively permeable

  • visking tubing / dialysis tubing - selectively permeable

  • dead cell membrane- freely permeable

  • cell wall (non-living) - freely permeable


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Diffusion Reactions

  • molecules movefrom high concentration to low concentration area

    • (fluid/dissolved solid molecules)


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Factors affecting ReactionsRate of Diffusion

  • Size (larger size, slower rate) (steeper gradient, faster rate)

  • Temperature (higher temp, faster rate)

  • Concentration gradient (concentration difference between the two areas)

  • Medium (gas > liquid > solid)

  • Surface area (larger area, faster rate)


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Importance of diffusion to living organisms Reactions

  • get rid of waste products

  • involve in gaseous exchange during respiration

  • absorb mineral salts in plants

  • absorb digested food in mammals


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Osmosis Reactions

  • water / solvent molecules move from high water concentration to low water concentration area (high water potential to low water potential area)(low solute concentration to high solute concentration area) through a selectively permeable membrane


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high solute Reactions

concentration

low solute

concentration

high water

concentration

low water

concentration

General direction of water movement


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Water potential Reactions

-the tendency of water molecules to diffuse from one place to another

  • -Pure water, the  = 0

  • For any solution, the  is negative

  • The more concentrated the solution is, the lower is its water potential


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Investigation 4.4 Reactions

To show Osmosis using a Dialysis Tubing


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thistle funnel Reactions

glass tube

dialysis tubing containing sucrose solution

initial level

thread

distilled water

Why has the sucrose solution risen in the glass tube ?

Ans: Because there is a net diffusion of water from the beaker (higher water potential) into the dialysis tubing (lower water potential), osmosis occurs.


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thistle funnel Reactions

glass tube

dialysis tubing containing sucrose solution

initial level

thread

distilled water

What property of the dialysis tubing enables the sucrose solution to rise ?

Ans: It is selectively permeable similar to the cell membrane which enables osmosis to occur.


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thistle funnel Reactions

glass tube

dialysis tubing containing sucrose solution

initial level

thread

distilled water

Why does the sucrose solution stop rising after a certain period of time ?

Ans: Because the hydrostatic pressure developed by the rise in water level inside the capillary tube increases the amount of water to diffuse out. Finally, the rate of influx of water becomes equal to that of outflux.


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Investigation 4.5 Reactions

To demonstrate Osmosis using Potatoes


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Surface view Reactions

sugar solution

distilled water

Side view

boiled potato

A

B

C

raw potato

distilled water

distilled water

What has happened to the level of the sugar solution in the cavity of potato B ? Explain your answer.

Ans: Rises. The living cell acts as a selectively permeable membrane. The distilled water outside has a higher water potential than the sugar solution in the cavity. So water passes through the potato into the cavity by osmosis.


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Surface view Reactions

sugar solution

distilled water

Side view

boiled potato

A

B

C

raw potato

distilled water

distilled water

What has happened to the level of the sugar solution in the cavity of potato C ? Explain your answer.

Ans: Remains unchanged. It is because the cells have been killed by boiling and they can no longer act as a selectively permeable membrane and osmosis does not occur.


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Surface view Reactions

sugar solution

distilled water

Side view

boiled potato

A

B

C

raw potato

distilled water

distilled water

What can you conclude from the results of this experiment ?

Ans: Osmosis only occurs in living cells since living cell membranes are selectively permeable.


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Surface view Reactions

sugar solution

distilled water

Side view

boiled potato

A

B

C

raw potato

distilled water

distilled water

At the end of the experiment, sucrose was found in the distilled water in petri dish C. Explain your answer.

Ans: The cells in potato C have been killed by boiling. They become freely permeable. Sucrose molecules diffuse out into the distilled water.


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Active Transport Reactions

  • molecules move from low concentration to high concentration area

  • requires energy & carrier

  • occurs in living cells only

  • also transport from high to low concentration in high rate


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outside Reactions

outside

carrier molecule

substances

cell membrane

inside

inside

Active Transport

Substances passes through the carrier from outside (low conc.) to inside (high conc.)


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~ ReactionsEnd ~


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