Employee safety and health
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Employee Safety and Health. Chapter 16. Chapter Overview. Occupational Safety and Health Act The Causes of Accidents How to Measure Safety Organizational Safety Programs Employee Health Violence in the Workplace Summary of Learning Objectives. 16- 3. Employee Safety and Health.

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Employee safety and health


Chapter 16

Chapter overview

Chapter Overview

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act

  • The Causes of Accidents

  • How to Measure Safety

  • Organizational Safety Programs

  • Employee Health

  • Violence in the Workplace

  • Summary of Learning Objectives


Employee safety and health1

Employee Safety and Health

  • Employee safety and health are important concerns in today’s organizations

  • Indirect costs include employers’ costs for health insurance and workers’ compensation

  • Health costs have escalated dramatically in recent decades

    • Occupational injuries and illnesses have always been common

  • U.S. Congress passed Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1970


Occupational safety and health act

Occupational Safety and Health Act

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act

    • Federal law enacted in 1970 to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for every working person

    • Applies to all businesses with one or more employees (except self-employed persons)

  • General-duty clause

    • Clause in the Occupational Safety and Health Act covering those situations not addressed by specific standards

    • Requires employers to comply with the intent of the act


Occupational safety and health administration osha responsibilities

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Responsibilities

  • Encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to implement new safety and health management systems or improve existing programs

  • Develop mandatory job safety and health standards and enforce them through worksite inspections, employer assistance, and, sometimes, by imposing citations, penalties, or both

  • Promote safe and healthful work environments through cooperative programs, partnerships, and alliances

  • Establish responsibilities and rights for employers and employees to achieve better safety and health conditions

  • Support the development of innovative ways of dealing with workplace hazards


Occupational safety and health administration osha responsibilities1

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Responsibilities

  • Support the development of innovative ways of dealing with workplace hazards

  • Establish requirements for employers to keep records of injury and illness and, monitor certain occupational illnesses

  • Establish training programs to increase the competence of occupational safety and health personnel

  • Provide technical and compliance assistance and training and education to help employers reduce worker accidents and injuries

  • Work in partnership with states that operate their own occupational safety and health programs

  • Support the Consultation Programs offered by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands


Osha standards

OSHA Standards

  • Establishes legally enforceable standards relating to employee health and safety

  • Currently OSHA issues standards for a wide variety of workplace hazards including

    • Toxic substances

    • Harmful physical agents

    • Electrical hazards

    • Fall hazards

    • Hazardous wastes

    • Infectious diseases

    • Fire and explosion hazards

    • Dangerous atmospheres

    • Machine hazards


Osha standards1

OSHA Standards

  • Most OSHA standards and forms can be obtained online

  • The Federal Register, regularly publishes all OSHA standards and amendments

    • Human resource department is responsible for being familiar with these standards and ensuring that organization complies with them


Establishment of standards

Establishment of Standards

  • OSHA can initiate standards on its own or on petitions from other parties, including

    • U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS)

    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

    • State and local governments

    • Nationally recognized standards-producing organizations, employers, labor organizations, or any other interested party

  • NIOSH, which was established by the act as an agency under HHS,

    • Conducts research on various safety and health problems

    • Recommends most of the standards adopted by OSHA


Workplace inspections

Workplace Inspections

  • OSHA compliance officers (inspectors) are authorized under the act to conduct workplace inspections

    • It conducts inspections without advance notice

  • Employers do have the right to require that OSHA obtain a search warrant before being admitted

    • Originally employers were not given advance notice of inspections and could not refuse to admit OSHA inspectors

    • Marshall v. Barlow’s Inc. – Court ruled that employers are not required to admit OSHA inspectors onto their premises without a search warrant

    • At the same time, however, the court ruled that the probable cause needed to obtain a search warrant would be much less than what would be required in a criminal matter


Inspection priorities

Inspection Priorities

  • The agency inspects under the following conditions

    • Imminent danger, or any condition where there is reasonable certainty that a danger exists that can be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before danger can be eliminated through normal enforcement procedures

    • Catastrophes and fatal accidents resulting in the death of any employee or the hospitalization of three or more employees

    • Employee complaints involving imminent danger or an employee violation that threatens death or serious harm

    • Referrals from other individuals, agencies, organizations, or the media

    • Planned, or programmed, inspections in industries with a high number of hazards and associated injuries

    • Follow-ups to previous inspections


Inspection procedures

Inspection Procedures

  • Representatives of employer should first ask to see the inspector’s OSHA credentials

  • Inspector conducts a preliminary meeting with top management of organization

  • Manager of human resource department is usually present

    • At this time, the inspector explains the

      • Purpose of the visit

      • Scope of the inspection

      • Standards that apply

  • Inspector then usually requests an

    • Employer representative – Often someone from human resource department

    • Employee representative – Usually selected directly by employees or union if one is present


Inspection procedures1

Inspection Procedures

  • Under no circumstances may the employer select the employee representative

  • Inspector proceeds with inspection tour, which may cover part or all of the facilities

  • Inspector meets again with employer or the employer representatives

    • Inspector discusses what has been found and indicates all apparent violations for which a citation may be issued or recommended


Citations and penalties

Citations and Penalties

  • Citations

    • In some cases, inspector has authority to issue citations at the work site immediately following the closing conference

    • Normally citations are issued by the OSHA area director and sent by certified mail

    • Once the citation is received, employer is required to post a copy of the citation at or near the place where violation occurred

      • For three days

      • Or until violation is corrected; whichever period is longer

  • Penalties

    • Under certain conditions some proposed penalties can be adjusted downward

    • Additional penalties may be imposed


Types of osha violations

Types of OSHA Violations


Reporting record keeping requirements

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • All employers must report to OSHA within eight hours of learning about

    • The death of any employee from a work-related incident or

    • The in-patient hospitalization of three or more employees as a result of a work-related incident

  • Employers must report all fatal heart attacks

  • Deaths/Accidents that do not need to be reported include

    • Deaths from motor vehicle accidents on public streets (except those in a construction work zone)

    • Accidents on commercial airplanes, trains, subways, or buses


Reporting record keeping requirements1

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Employers of 11 or more persons must meet certain record-keeping requirements specified by OSHA. These include

    • Maintaining records in each establishment of occupational injuries and illnesses as they occur and making those records accessible to employees

    • Keeping injury and illness records and posting from February 1 through April 30 an annual summary of occupational injuries and illnesses for each establishment

      • A company executive must certify the accuracy of the summary

    • Complying with any additional record-keeping and reporting requirements in specific OSHA standards


Reporting record keeping requirements2

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Recording any fatality regardless of the length of time between the injury and death

  • Providing, upon request, pertinent injury and illness records for inspection and copying by

    • Any representative of the Secretaries of Labor or HHS, or

    • State during any investigation, research, or statistical compilation


Reporting record keeping requirements3

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Many OSHA standards have special record-keeping and reporting requirements

    • All employers covered by the act must maintain certain forms

  • Currently, three record-keeping forms are required

    • OSHA Form 300, Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses

    • OSHA Form 300A, Summary of Work-Related Injures and Illnesses

    • OSHA Form 301, Injury and Illness Incident Report


Reporting record keeping requirements4

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Form 300 – Requires employers to log each recordable occupational injury and illness within six working days from time employer learns of it

  • Form 300 includes

    • All occupational illnesses, regardless of severity

    • All occupational injuries resulting in

      • Death

      • One or more lost workdays

      • Restriction of work or motion

      • Loss of consciousness

      • Transfer to another job

      • Medical treatment other than first-aid


Reporting record keeping requirements5

Reporting/Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Form 300A – Designed to make it easier to post and calculate incident rates

    • Employers must post copies of the previous year’s records no later than February 1 and keep them up at least through April 30

  • Form 301 – Includes more data about how injury or illness occurred

    • Must be completed within seven calendar days from time employer learns of work-related injury or illness

    • These forms must be retained for five years by the organization and must be available for inspection


The causes of accidents personal acts

The Causes of Accidents – Personal Acts

  • Estimated that unsafe personal acts cause as much as 80 percent of organizational accidents

  • Unsafe personal acts include

    • Taking unnecessary risks

    • Horseplay

    • Failing to wear protective equipment

    • Using improper tools and equipment

    • Taking unsafe shortcuts

  • Difficult to determine why employees commit unsafe personal acts. Potential reasons include

    • Fatigue

    • Haste

    • Boredom

    • Stress

    • Poor eyesight

    • Daydreaming


The causes of accidents personal acts1

The Causes of Accidents – Personal Acts

  • These reasons do not totally explain why employees intentionally neglect to wear prescribed equipment or do not follow procedures

  • Most employees think of accidents as always happening to someone else

    • Such an attitude can easily lead to carelessness or a lack of respect for what can happen

  • Some people get a kick out of taking chances and showing off

    • Research studies have also shown that employees with positive attitudes have fewer accidents than employees with negative attitudes

    • This is not surprising when one considers that negative attitudes are likely to be related to employee carelessness


The causes of accidents physical environment and accident proneness

The Causes of Accidents – Physical Environment and Accident Proneness

  • Physical environment

    • Accidents can and do happen in all types of environments, such as offices, parking lots, and factories

    • Certain work conditions, however, seem to result in more accidents

  • Accident proneness

    • Certain people are accident prone

    • Some employees, due to their physical and mental makeup, are more susceptible to accidents

    • This condition may result from inborn traits, but it often develops as a result of an individual’s environment

    • However, this tendency should not be used to justify an accident

    • Given the right set of circumstances, anyone can have an accident


Unsafe conditions in the work environment

Unsafe Conditions in theWork Environment


How to measure safety

How to Measure Safety

  • Two most widely accepted methods for measuring an organization’s safety record include

    • Accident frequency

    • Accident severity

  • Frequency rate – Used to indicate how often disabling injuries occur

  • Disabling injuries – Cause an employee to miss one or more days of work following an accident

    • Also known as lost-time injuries

  • Severity rate – Indicates how severe the accidents were by calculating the length of time injured employees were out of work

    • Only disabling injuries are used in determining frequency and severity rates


How to measure safety1

How to Measure Safety

  • Neither frequency rate nor severity rate means much until they are compared with similar figures

    • For other departments or divisions within the organization

    • For the previous year

    • For other organizations

  • It is through these comparisons that an organization’s safety record can be objectively evaluated


Formulas for computing accident frequency rate and severity rate

Formulas for Computing Accident Frequency Rate and Severity Rate


Organizational safety programs

Organizational Safety Programs

  • Major objective of any safety program is to get the employees to “think safety”

    • Accident prevention

    • Designed to keep safety and accident prevention on employees’ minds

  • Four basic elements are present in most successful safety programs

    • It must have the genuine (rather than casual) support of top and middle management

    • It must be clearly established that safety is a responsibility of operating managers

    • A positive attitude toward safety must exist and be maintained

    • One person or department should be in charge of safety program and responsible for its operation


Promoting safety suggestions

Promoting Safety – Suggestions

  • Make the work interesting

    • Attempts to make jobs interesting usually successful if they add responsibility, challenge, and other similar factors that increase employees’ job satisfaction

  • Establish a safety committee composed of operative employees and representatives of management

    • A rotating membership of 5 to 12 members is desirable

    • Normal duties include inspecting, observing work practices, investigating accidents, and making recommendations

    • Committee meetings should be held at least once a month on company time, and attendance should be mandatory

  • Feature employee safety contests

    • Reward for having best safety record for a given time period, safety knowledge, for submitting good accident prevention ideas


Promoting safety suggestions1

Promoting Safety – Suggestions

  • Publicize safety statistics

    • Monthly accident reports should be posted

    • Ideas as to how accidents can be avoided should be solicited

  • Use bulletin boards throughout the organization

    • Pictures, sketches, and cartoons can be used

    • Change bulletin boards frequently

  • Encourage employees, including supervisors and managers, to have high expectations for safety

    • Recognize positive safety actions, and acknowledge those who contribute to safety improvements

  • Periodically hold safety training programs and meetings

    • Have employees attend and participate in these meetings as role players or instructors


Establishing a safety training program

Establishing a Safety Training Program

  • Assess training needs by examining accident and injury records and talking to department heads about their perceived needs

    • Regardless of severity, try to find out

      • Where problems are located

      • What the potential causes might be

      • What has been done in the past to correct them

  • Gauge level of employees’ safety skills

    • Use written tests, employee interviews, and general observations to determine level of employee knowledge about their job

  • Design a program to solve the program

    • Outside resources such as consultants, equipment vendors, and even OSHA can be helpful

    • Use a variety of teaching methods and involve employees as much as possible


Establishing a safety training program1

Establishing a Safety Training Program

  • Get line managers on board

    • Once top management has embraced a safety philosophy, inform line managers about safety problems throughout the organization

    • Emphasize that they can help set the proper tone through example and instruction

  • Evaluate the program’s effectiveness

    • Try to answer two basic questions

      • Did the program change employees’ behavior?

      • Did the program impact business results in a positive manner?

  • Fine-tune the safety process

    • Periodically review training program and make adjustments

      • To incorporate new safety standards

      • To account for business and industry changes


Employee health

Employee Health

  • Recently, there has been a lot of attention on employee health

    • Statistics show occupational diseases may cost industry as much or more than occupational accidents

    • Although total number of nonfatal job-related injuries and illnesses in the U.S. has dropped in certain recent years, the total number of illnesses has risen over the same periods

    • There are many diseases and health-related problems that are not necessarily job related but that may affect job performance

  • Many organizations now attempt to

    • Remove health hazards from the workplace

    • Investigate programs to improve health


Occupational health hazards

Occupational Health Hazards

  • Defined as any abnormal condition or disorder (other than that resulting from an occupational injury) caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment

    • Approximately 242,500 new cases of occupational illnesses were reported among U.S. employees in private industry during 2005

    • In 2005, the overall incidence rate of nonfatal occupational illnesses was 26.7 per 10,000 full-time employees in private industry

  • U.S. Department of Labor currently uses four major categories to classify occupational illnesses

    • Occupational skin diseases or disorders

    • Respiratory conditions due to toxic agents

    • Poisoning (systemic effects of toxic materials)

    • All other occupational illnesses

  • Increased awareness of occupational diseases contributed to passage of OSHA


Occupational health hazards1

Occupational Health Hazards

  • Toxic Substance Control Act of 1976

    • Requires pretesting of certain new chemicals marketed each year

  • A 1980 OSHA rule requires organizations to

    • Measure for safety

    • Record employee exposure to, certain potentially harmful substances

  • Medical records must be made available to

    • Employees

    • Their designated representatives

    • OSHA

  • These records must be maintained for 30 years, even if the employee leaves the job

    • Additional rules have been issued related to specific hazards


Hazard communications

Hazard Communications

  • Right-to-know rule

    • Purpose is to ensure employers and employees know

      • What chemical hazards exist in their workplace

      • How to protect themselves against those hazards

  • Goal

    • Reduce incidence of illness and injuries caused by chemicals

  • Hazard Communication Standard ensures uniform requirements

    • To ensure hazards of all chemicals imported into, produced in, or used in workplace are evaluated and evaluated results are transmitted to affected employers and exposed employees

  • OSHA has developed a variety of materials to help employers and employees implement effective hazard communication programs

    • www.eduwhere.com


Stress in the workplace

Stress in the Workplace

  • Mental and physical condition that results from a perceived threat of danger (physical or emotional) and the pressure to remove it

    • Potential exists when an environmental situation presents a demand threatening to exceed a person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it

  • Stress manifests itself among employees in several ways, including

    • Increased absenteeism

    • Job turnover

    • Lower productivity

    • Mistakes on the job

    • Excessive stress can result in both physical and emotional problems


Stress in the workplace1

Stress in the Workplace

  • Some common stress-related disorders include

    • Tension and migraine headaches

    • Coronary heart disease

    • High blood pressure

    • Muscle tightness in chest, neck, and lower back

    • Gastritis, indigestion, ulcers, diarrhea, constipation

    • Bronchial asthma

    • Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Some menstrual and sexual dysfunctions

  • From a psychological perspective, inordinate or prolonged stress can adversely affect personal factors such as

    • Concentration, memory

    • Sleep, appetite

    • Motivation, mood

    • Ability to relate to others


Stress in the workplace2

Stress in the Workplace

  • Recent reports by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) cites the following

    • 40 percent of employees reported their job was very or extremely stressful

    • 25 percent view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives

    • 75 percent of employees believe that employees have more on-the-job stress than a generation ago

    • 29 percent of employees felt quite a bit or extremely stressed at work

    • 26 percent of employees said they were “often or very often burned out or stressed by their work”


Stress in the workplace3

Stress in the Workplace

  • American Institute of Stress states that cost of stress for employers is currently estimated at over $300 billion annually as assessed by

    • Accidents

    • Absenteeism

    • Employee turnover

    • Diminished productivity

    • Direct medical and insurance costs

    • Workers’ compensation

    • Other legal costs

    • 60 to 80 percent of accidents on job are stress related

  • Many organizations conduct training programs designed to help reduce employee stress

    • Most attempt to teach employees self-help techniques for individually reducing their own stress


Common sources and suggested causes of job related stress

Common Sources and Suggested Causes of Job-Related Stress




  • Occurs when work is no longer meaningful to a person

    • Can result from stress or a variety of other work-related or personal factors

  • Certain related myths have surfaced

    • Myth 1: Burnout is just a new-fangled notion that gives lazy people an excuse not to work

    • Myth 2: As long as people really enjoy their work they can work as long and hard as they want and never experience burnout

    • Myth 3: Individuals know when they are burning out and, when they do, all they need to do is take off for a few days or weeks and then they’ll be as good as new

    • Myth 4: Individuals who are physically and psychologically strong are unlikely to experience burnout

    • Myth 5: Job burnout is always job-related




  • From organization’s viewpoint, to reduce burnout

    • Identify those jobs with highest potential for burnout

      • Air traffic controller

      • Certain computer- related jobs

    • Several actions are possible, once those have been identified

      • Redesigning jobs

      • Clarifying expectations

      • Changing work schedules

      • Improving physical working conditions

      • Training jobholders


The path to professional burnout

The Path to Professional Burnout


Alcoholism and drug abuse

Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration estimated for year 2005

    • Nearly 19.7 million people in the U.S. used illicit drugs

    • 55 million people were alcohol binge drinkers

    • 16 million people were heavy drinkers

  • National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence estimates alcohol and drug abuse costs American economy $276 billion per year in

    • Lost productivity

    • Health care expenditures

    • Crime

    • Motor vehicle crashes

    • Other conditions


Alcoholism and drug abuse1

Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

  • Compared to most employees, substance abusers

    • Are late 3 times more often

    • Request time off 2.2 times more often

    • Have 2.5 times as many absences of eight days or more

    • Use 3 times the normal level of sick benefits

    • Are 5 times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claim

    • Are involved in accidents 3.6 times more often

  • Substance abuse results in

    • Reduced productivity

    • Reduced work quality

    • Damage to property and equipment

    • Theft

    • Lower morale

    • Safety violations

    • Poor decision making




  • Historically, people viewed alcoholics as people lacking self-control and morals

  • Alcoholism is recognized as a disease with no single cause

    • Does not strike any particular group

    • Approximately 80 percent of all adult binge and heavy drinkers are employed

    • Estimated that economic loss to employer of an alcoholic employee amounts to 25 percent of the employee’s wages

    • Compared to nonalcoholic employees, alcoholics incur twice the rate of absenteeism caused by illness

    • Alcoholics are also two to three time more likely to be involved in a work-related accident

    • Some estimate that as many as 50 percent of all problem employees in industry are actually alcoholics




  • Organizations have only recently undertaken widespread efforts to reduce employee alcoholism

  • Many have established in-house alcoholic treatment programs

  • Indicated that in-house alcoholic treatment programs achieve a high rate of success, based on

    • Recovery rates

    • Cost-effectiveness measures

  • Programs normally administered as part of an employee assistance program (EAP)


Other drugs

Other Drugs

  • Relatively new phenomenon

  • Other drug usage usually falls into one of three categories

    • Marijuana abuse

    • Prescription drug abuse

    • Hard-drug abuse

  • Estimated that approximately 75 percent of all drug users are currently employed

    • Most employees using drugs are young, but not all blue-collar employees

  • Employees on drugs are often much more difficult to detect than are drinking employees

    • Alcohol can usually be smelled, whereas drugs cannot

    • Relatively easy to pop a pill at lunch or on a break undetected

  • Current estimates are that 10 percent of fulltime employees in the U.S. currently use illicit drugs


Drug testing

Drug Testing

  • Many companies use some form of drug testing for both job applicants and existing employees

  • While many, if not most, large companies do utilize drug testing, the practice is less prevalent in small businesses

  • Certain legal risks are involved in drug testing, and therefore extreme caution should be exercised

  • An employer can be exposed to substantial liability for defamation for making a false accusation of drug or alcohol use


Drug testing1

Drug Testing

  • Criticism of drug-testing programs is that they tend to focus on off-duty conduct

    • Many view this as an invasion of privacy, which has led to morale problems and numerous lawsuits

  • Performance or impairment testing – New form of testing

    • Instead of testing for byproducts that may or may not cause impairment, performance testing measures physical variables such as coordination and response time to certain tasks

    • Person’s score can then be compared to a standard or to a previous score

    • Commercial performance tests are relatively new in most areas of the country


Drug testing guidelines for implementation

Drug Testing – Guidelines for Implementation

  • Establish a routine, uniform, organizationwide policy for substance abuse and adhere to it in a consistent and nondisciplinary manner

  • Assume employees are drug-free until proven otherwise

  • Make negative test scores a bona fide occupational qualification whenever possible

  • Include testing in uniform preemployment agreements and have them signed by new employees

    • For existing employees, establish drug tests as a prerequisite to recalls, promotions, and transfers

  • Train supervisors to detect and refer problem employees for testing

  • Use a high-quality type of urinalysis, not just the cheapest method


Drug testing guidelines for implementation1

Drug Testing – Guidelines for Implementation

  • Use monitored laboratories that employ blind testing to ensure the integrity of the testing procedures

    • Blind testing requires that those performing the tests do not know the identity of those being tested

  • Use appropriate supervision and custody arrangements to ensure that the samples tested are valid

  • Require tested employees to list all legal over-the-counter drugs they are taking at the time of testing

  • Develop and maintain profiles of well-employee urinalysis results that can later be used for comparative purposes

  • Keep all results confidential


Employee safety and health


  • Defined as “a reliably diagnosed disease that is at least moderately indicative of an underlying cellular immunodeficiency in a person who has had no known underlying cause of cellular immunodeficiency nor any other cause of reduced resistance reported to be associated with that disease”

    • U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that through December 2005, 956,666 adult and adolescent cases of AIDS had been diagnosed in the U.S.

  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and numerous state laws offer certain protection to employees infected with AIDS

    • Under these laws, AIDS-infected employees may file discrimination suits if employment opportunities are denied solely on the basis of their having AIDS


Employee safety and health


  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibited discrimination against otherwise qualified handicapped individuals solely on the basis of their disability

  • The act applies only to

    • Federal contractors who hold a contract of $2,500 or more

    • Subcontractors to such an employer

    • Recipients of federal financial aid

    • Federal agencies

  • Companies that do not meet previously stated requirements of the act are subject only to applicable state and local statutes, which may vary considerably from state to state


Employee safety and health


  • If an individual with AIDS is covered by the Act, certain other issues must be addressed

  • These issues include

    • Determining if individual meets definition of handicapped individual

    • If the handicapped individual is otherwise qualified to do the job

    • If the employee’s contagiousness poses a threat to others

  • Infected employee is not protected by the act when

    • He or she does not meet provision for being handicapped

    • Is not otherwise qualified

    • Does pose a threat to others

  • Act does not prevent employers from terminating an employee who can no longer perform duties of his or her job

    • Provided employer made reasonable accommodations

    • Reasonable accommodations – Defined as those that do not pose undue financial or administrative burdens on employer


Employee safety and health


  • Since no cure or vaccine for AIDS presently exists, many organizations are turning to education as most viable means of combating

    • Medical and social dilemmas posed by AIDS

  • Other than developing formal policies for dealing with AIDS, companies are developing in-depth training programs to educate their workforces

    • Surveys report that 65 percent of survey respondents indicated they would like HIV/AIDS education in the workplace

    • Only 22 percent of the respondents reported that they were currently receiving HIV/AIDS education


Potential benefit of aids education in the workplace

Potential Benefit of AIDS Education in the Workplace


Employee assistance programs eaps

Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)

  • Company-sponsored programs designed to help employees with personal problems such as

    • Alcohol and drug abuse

    • Depression

    • Anxiety

    • Domestic trauma

    • Financial problems

    • Other psychiatric/medical problems

  • Many large organizations and a growing number of smaller ones are attempting to help employees with personal problems

  • This help is not purely altruistic; it is largely based on cost savings


Cost of personal problems

Cost of Personal Problems

  • Primary and potential results of personal problems include

    • Reduced productivity

    • Absenteeism and tardiness

    • Increased costs of insurance programs, including sickness and accident benefits

    • Lower morale

    • More friction among employees

    • More friction between supervisors and employees

    • More grievances

    • Permanent loss of trained employees due to disability, retirement, and death

  • Difficult to measure, but a very real cost associated with troubled employees is

    • Loss of business

    • Damaged public image


Organization involvement

Organization Involvement

  • Until recently, organizations attempted to avoid employees’ problems that were not job related

    • Although aware of existence of problems, most managers believed they should not interfere with employees’ personal lives

    • In the past, organizations tended to get rid of troubled employees

  • Factors that have altered this approach include

    • Cost considerations

    • Unions

    • Government legislation

  • Accepted viewpoint now is that employees’ personal problems are private until they begin affecting their job performance

    • When and if that happens, personal problems become a matter of concern for the organization


Organization involvement1

Organization Involvement

  • Studies show that EAPs help in combating

    • Absenteeism

    • On-the-job accidents and grievances

    • Increased workers’ compensation premiums

    • Increased sickness and accident benefits

    • Increased trips to infirmary

  • Surveys found that 70 percent of the responding companies offered an EAP


Types of eaps

Types of EAPs

  • Employs a coordinator to evaluate employee’s problem sufficiently to make a referral to proper agency or clinic for diagnosis

    • Sometimes coordinator serves only as a consultant to organization and is not a full-time employee

    • Especially popular with smaller employers and branch operations of large employers

  • Organization hires a qualified person to diagnose employee’s problem

    • Employee is referred to proper agency or clinic for treatment

  • Diagnosis and treatment are provided in-house directly by organization

    • Not very cost-effective because of

      • Complexities of maintaining a full-service facility

      • Hiring appropriate professional staff


Features of a successful eap

Features of a Successful EAP

  • It must first be accepted by employees; they must not be afraid to use it

  • Experience has shown that certain elements are critical to success of an EAP

    • Studies report that for every dollar an employer invests in an EAP, it saves $14

  • Because of obvious benefits to both employees and employers, EAPs are expected to continue to grow in popularity

  • Evidence indicates that EAPs are also growing in popularity in other countries and specifically in

    • Canada

    • England

    • China


Ten critical elements of an eap

Ten Critical Elements of an EAP


Work life programs

Work/Life Programs

  • A work/life program is any employer-sponsored benefit or working situation that helps employees balance work and nonwork demands

  • These programs include

    • Flexible work schedules

    • Job sharing

    • Telecommuting

    • Flexible benefits

    • Wellness programs

    • Child-care and elder-care assistance

    • Sick-leave policies

  • Prevalence of single-parent families and dual-career couples with children has had a significant impact on need for these programs


Work life programs1

Work/Life Programs

  • Substantial evidence in both “hard” numbers and “soft” benefits exists that these programs pay off

    • Survey report that almost 50 percent of responding companies had increased number of work/life programs they offer

    • Evidence exists that growing number of employers are integrating work/life and employee assistance programs

  • Many people believe that retention, morale, and productivity can be improved from work/life programs

  • Employers, consultants, and providers say that by combining these programs, companies can offer a “one-stop” option that effectively helps employees while at the same time cutting costs and eliminating administrative duplication


Wellness programs

Wellness Programs

  • Designed to prevent illness and enhance employee wellness

  • Include

    • Periodic medical exams

    • Stop-smoking clinics

    • Improved dietary practices

    • Hypertension detection and control

    • Weight control

    • Exercise and fitness

    • Stress management

    • Accident-risk reduction

    • Immunization

    • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training (CPR)


Wellness programs1

Wellness Programs

  • Some of the documented results of wellness programs include

    • Fewer sick days

    • Reduced coronary heart disease

    • Lower major medical costs

    • Increased employee productivity

  • Experts in wellness field report that even small companies can offer wellness programs and that they do not have to be expensive

  • In light of continual rise in health care costs, it is predicted that company-sponsored wellness programs will continue to grow in future


Specific company benefits of wellness programs

Specific Company Benefits of Wellness Programs


Violence in the workplace

Violence In the Workplace

  • Workplace violence includes

    • Homicides

    • Physical attacks

    • Rapes

    • Aggravated and other assaults

    • All forms of harassment

    • Any other act that creates a hostile work environment

  • Surveys indicate that nearly 5 percent of U.S. private businesses experienced a violent incident within 12 months prior to completing the survey

    • Others report that 5,500 incidents of workplace violence occur every day with an average of 17 workplace homicides per week in U.S. workplaces

    • 21 percent of the organizations reported that the incident affected their employees’ fear level and an equal percentage said employee morale was affected by the incident


Violence in the workplace1

Violence In the Workplace

  • Surveys found that only 1 percent of responding companies have written policies on workplace violence

  • Companies must concentrate on avoiding or heading off violence rather than simply dealing with it after it occurs

    • Best protection may lie in developing a corporate culture that makes violence all but unthinkable

  • Violence is much less likely to take place in an environment where employees feel appreciated and believe they are treated with respect


Violence in the workplace2

Violence In the Workplace

  • Factors that prevent becoming a victim to violent incidents

    • Hire carefully, but realistically

      • Screen out potential employees whose histories show a propensity to violence

    • Draw up a plan and involve employees in it

      • Reporting requirements for both violence and threats of violence should be an integral part

      • Plan should also be shaped by employee participation

    • As part of the plan, adopt a “zero tolerance” policy

      • Does not necessarily mean dismissal – Perpetrator of violence will face consequences of some kind

      • Discipline to teach, not punish

    • Enlist the aid of professionals – with an eye on the cost

      • External resources when necessary can help if a problem or a potential problem reveals itself


Summary of learning objectives

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • State the purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and discuss its major provisions

  • List the three major causes of accidents in the workplace

  • Define frequency rate and severity rate

  • Offer several suggestions for promoting safety in the workplace

  • Discuss the Hazard Communication rule

  • Differentiate between stress and burnout

  • Name several work-related consequences of alcohol and drug abuse


Summary of learning objectives1

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • Offer several guidelines for implementing a drug-testing program

  • Discuss the legal requirements for terminating an employee with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

  • Explain the three basic types of employee assistance programs (EAPs)

  • Explain what work/life programs and wellness programs are

  • List several specific things an organization can do to help reduce violence in its workplace


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