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Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development. Using the Scientific Method: Research in Child Development. By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook). Descriptive Research Methods.

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chapter 1 exploring child development

Chapter 1:Exploring Child Development

Using the Scientific Method: Research in Child Development

By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)

descriptive research methods
Descriptive Research Methods
  • Research methods that attempt to describe something about a behavior of interest, such as how often it occurs and under what conditions.
    • Naturalistic observation – observe child in natural environment
    • Structured observation – researcher creates environment
    • Self-report – child answers direct questions
    • Case studies – intensive studies of one child or small group
correlational research methods measuring associations
Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations
  • Researchers measure the degree to which two or more variables are related or associated.
    • Correlation coefficient – number that indicates direction and strength of an association between two or more variables
    • Positive coefficient – the scores on two variables go in the same direction
    • Negative coefficient – two variables have an inverse relationship
    • Magnitude – strength of the correlation
  • Correlation does not prove causation!
experimental research methods determining cause and effect
Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect
  • Research method where investigators systematically manipulate an independent variable to determine if it causes a difference in dependent variable.
    • Independent variable (IV) – variable that is manipulated in the experiment
    • Dependent variable (DV) – outcome measured; dependent on manipulation of independent variable
    • Control other variables
    • Random assignment to groups – each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups
    • Research must ask if it is ethical to manipulate IV
methods for assessing development
Methods for Assessing Development
  • Cross-sectional method – design that studies development by comparing groups of children of different ages against one another at the same point in time.
    • Can be completed in relatively short time period
    • Age not only difference in participants
    • Cohort effects – differences in behavior or other attributes that result from the unique experiences of people who grow up in different periods
methods for assessing development1
Methods for Assessing Development
  • Longitudinal method – design that studies development by measuring or observing the same children across time as they grow and mature.
    • Allows more direct measurement of change over time
    • Problems are time involved, dropouts
  • May combine methods in hybrid design, such as cross-lagged or sequential.
ethics in research with children
Ethics in Research with Children
  • Must follow ethical guidelines of American Psychological Association and the Society for Research in Child Development
  • Most important Ethical Standards
    • Risk v. benefits
    • Nonharmful procedures
    • Informed consent
    • Privacy
    • Implications of research
  • Need approval for projects from an institutional review board (IRB)

http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.pdf

slide12
Figure 1.4 on Slide 5: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 23). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Figure 1.5 on Slide 6: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 24). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Figure 1.7 on Slide 8: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 27). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Figure 1.8 on Slide 11: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 30). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.
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