Chapter 1 exploring child development
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Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development. Using the Scientific Method: Research in Child Development. By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook). Descriptive Research Methods.

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Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development

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Chapter 1 exploring child development

Chapter 1:Exploring Child Development

Using the Scientific Method: Research in Child Development

By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)


Descriptive research methods

Descriptive Research Methods

  • Research methods that attempt to describe something about a behavior of interest, such as how often it occurs and under what conditions.

    • Naturalistic observation – observe child in natural environment

    • Structured observation – researcher creates environment

    • Self-report – child answers direct questions

    • Case studies – intensive studies of one child or small group


Correlational research methods measuring associations

Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations

  • Researchers measure the degree to which two or more variables are related or associated.

    • Correlation coefficient – number that indicates direction and strength of an association between two or more variables

    • Positive coefficient – the scores on two variables go in the same direction

    • Negative coefficient – two variables have an inverse relationship

    • Magnitude – strength of the correlation

  • Correlation does not prove causation!


Correlational research methods measuring associations1

Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations


Correlational research methods measuring associations2

Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations


Experimental research methods determining cause and effect

Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect

  • Research method where investigators systematically manipulate an independent variable to determine if it causes a difference in dependent variable.

    • Independent variable (IV) – variable that is manipulated in the experiment

    • Dependent variable (DV) – outcome measured; dependent on manipulation of independent variable

    • Control other variables

    • Random assignment to groups – each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups

    • Research must ask if it is ethical to manipulate IV


Experimental research methods determining cause and effect1

Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect


Methods for assessing development

Methods for Assessing Development

  • Cross-sectional method – design that studies development by comparing groups of children of different ages against one another at the same point in time.

    • Can be completed in relatively short time period

    • Age not only difference in participants

    • Cohort effects – differences in behavior or other attributes that result from the unique experiences of people who grow up in different periods


Methods for assessing development1

Methods for Assessing Development

  • Longitudinal method – design that studies development by measuring or observing the same children across time as they grow and mature.

    • Allows more direct measurement of change over time

    • Problems are time involved, dropouts

  • May combine methods in hybrid design, such as cross-lagged or sequential.


Methods for assessing development2

Methods for Assessing Development


Ethics in research with children

Ethics in Research with Children

  • Must follow ethical guidelines of American Psychological Association and the Society for Research in Child Development

  • Most important Ethical Standards

    • Risk v. benefits

    • Nonharmful procedures

    • Informed consent

    • Privacy

    • Implications of research

  • Need approval for projects from an institutional review board (IRB)

    http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.pdf


Chapter 1 exploring child development

  • Figure 1.4 on Slide 5: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 23). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Figure 1.5 on Slide 6: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 24). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Figure 1.7 on Slide 8: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 27). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Figure 1.8 on Slide 11: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 30). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

  • All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.


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