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Type IA Supernovas. Nicklaus Traeden. Outline. Background Cosmology Background Cosmic Distance Ladder Observation History Supernova Physics Technique Current instruments Results Problems Future Projects. Background. Cosmic Distance Ladder //pretty picture here. History.

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type ia supernovas

Type IA Supernovas

Nicklaus Traeden

outline
Outline
  • Background
    • Cosmology Background
    • Cosmic Distance Ladder
    • Observation History
    • Supernova Physics
  • Technique
    • Current instruments
    • Results
    • Problems
  • Future Projects
background
Background
  • Cosmic Distance Ladder
          • //pretty picture here
supernovae
Supernovae
  • Supernovae through history
    • Recorded as early as 185 CE
    • Most widely known is SN 1054
      • Produced crab nebula
      • Type II m = -6.00
      • 6500 ly away
    • SN1006 is brightest stellar event
      • Type Ia m = -7.50
      • 7200 ly
    • More discoveries with telescopes
      • SN 1604 – “Kepler’s Star”
spectral identification
Spectral Identification

Core Collapse Supernovae

white dwarf
White dwarf
  • Electron degeneracy
  • Give relationship between M and R
  • Want mass limit
  • Chandrasekhar Limit ~ 1.4 solar Masses
type ia continued
Type Iacontinued
  • 2 12C + 2 16O 56Ni 56Co 56Fe
  • ~1044 J
  • ejecting matter ~6% c
  • Mv = −19.3

(about 5 billion times brighter than the Sun)

http://youtu.be/_zw6Eih7QG0

background2
Background
  • Data gathered – S. Perlmutter et al. 1999
          • //graph
technique1
Technique
  • Current Surveys
    • Low z
      • SDSS, LOSS/LOTOS
    • Medium z
      • supernovae legacy survey (SNLS)
      • z<1
    • High z
      • HST
  • Results
low z surveys
Low Z surveys
  • z<0.03
    • LOSS/LOTOS - over 1000 SNe surveyed
    • Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) – IR light curves
    • SN Factory – 600 SNe in 2 years
    • Catalina Real-Time Transit Survey
      • Covers 26000 square degrees
    • Amateur
  • Needed for proper calibration of SNe 1a
  • Used to determine SNe rates
intermediate z surveys
Intermediate z surveys
  • SDSS – z=0.05-0.4
  • CSP – z>0.3
high z surveys
High z surveys
  • Supernova Cosmology Project
  • CFHT + MegaCam
    • 4 filters six years, rolling search
  • GOODS HST SN Search
    • High z (z>1.2)
  • HST Cluster Supernova Survey
    • 0.9 < z < 1.5
results1
Results
  • Results
cosmological constraints
Cosmological constraints
  • Consistent with a flat, dark energyw = -1 universe
            • Supernova Legacy Survey 2011
possible problems
Possible Problems
  • Practical Problems
    • IR, Sne rarity,
  • Astrophysical Uncertainty
  • Systematic Error
      • Calibration uncertainty
practical problems
Practical Problems
  • SNe 1a are rare.
    • 1 per galaxy per millennia
    • Telescope needs to re-sweep the same area often
  • Want SNe @ high redshift.
    • Shifts spectrum into IR
      • IR is both absorbed and created by the atmosphere.
astronomical uncertainty
Astronomical Uncertainty
  • All Type IaSNe are the same
  • All light curves are from Type IaSne
      • White dwarf collisions
  • Reddening / extinction
systematic error
Systematic Error
  • Instrument error
    • Calibration Error
    • Filter uncertainty
future projects
Future Projects
  • WFIRST
    • Microlensing Planet Finder
    • Joint Dark Energy Mission/Omega
    • Near Infrared Sky Surveyor
slide31

 a 288-megapixel focal-plane array with a pixel size of 110 milliarcseconds

  • an integral field spectrograph
  • 2.4 m diameter
  • Field ~200 x bigger than HST
wfirst
WFIRST
  • Survey will use 0.5 years of observing over a 2 year period.
  • Projected to measure 2700 Type 1a SNe
    • 0.2<z<1.7
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