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Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. What is evolution ?. What is evolution ?. Change in organisms over a long time. In order for evolution to occur, there must be _____________ __________ present. In order for evolution to occur, there must be NATURAL VARIATION present.

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What is evolution?


What is evolution?

Change in organisms over a long time



In order for evolution to occur, there must be __________ present.NATURALVARIATION present.


James Hutton __________ present.Charles Lyell

Hutton and Lyell were geologists who stated the Earth was _________ years old, not thousands that people thought.


James Hutton __________ present.Charles Lyell

Hutton and Lyell were geologists who stated the Earth was MILLIONS of years old, not thousands.


Who wrote about human population growth eventually exceeding the Earth’s resources threatening our species survival?


Who wrote about human population growth eventually exceeding the Earth’s resources threatening our species survival? MALTHUS


Most species produce many more offspring than the resources in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called ________?


Most species produce many more offspring than the resources in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

Struggle for Existence


Lamark in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

What 3 evolution ideas did Lamark have?

Not all were accurate

(Hint: “Lamark missed the mark”)


  • Lamark in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

  • Species strive for perfection and complexity

  • “Use it, or lose it”

  • Acquired traits are passed on to offspring


Darwin proposed the theory of __________ _________. in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:


Darwin proposed the theory of in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: NATURAL SELECTION


Darwin in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

He studied the Galapagos finches and examined how they evolved. He used the term: _______________________


Darwin in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

Studied the Galapagos finches and examined how they evolved. He used the term: “Survival of the Fittest”


What is the type of in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: adaptation that new species originate from one ancestor like Darwin’s finches?

“Tweak the Beak”


Adaptive Radiation in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:


Darwin said that the ability of an organism to in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: survive and reproduce in its environment is called its ______________.


Darwin said that the ability of an organism to in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: survive and reproduce in its environment is called its FITNESS!


Name the type of evolutionary change where there is a in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: long period of steady evolution and then a sudden event such as a volcano eruption?

A man by the name of Gould came up with this idea.


Punctuated Equilibrium in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called:

A man by the name of Gould came up with this idea.


Structures from in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: same ancestor, with same bone structure, but with different functions are called _________________structures.


Structures from in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: same ancestor, with same structure, but with different functions are called Homologous (Homo=same) structures.


Structures from in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: different ancestors, but perform similar function are called

______________ structures.

Example: wings for flying


Structures from in that area can handle. This leads to a situation called: different ancestors, but perform same function are called

Analogous

Ana=“not” structures.



Vestigial known function any longer.organs are ones that are reduced in size and have no known function any longer.


What is a known function any longer.fossil?


What is a known function any longer.fossil?

Preserved remains of a living organism


Who studies fossils? known function any longer.

What is it called to date a fossil?

Where are the oldest fossils found in soil?


Who studies fossils? known function any longer.Paleontologists

What is it called to date a fossil? Relative Dating : position of fossil in Earth’s rock layers

Where are the oldest fossils found in soil? Lowest rock layers


Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Principle known function any longer.

Name the 5 parts to the Hardy-Weinberg principle to maintain genetic equilibrium?


Genetic Equilibrium known function any longer.will occur if ALL of the following 5 conditions must exist

(this is highly unlikely to ever happen)

No mutations

No emigration/immigration

No natural selection

Must be a large population

Random mating must occur




What is the gene frequency change in a small population which is due to chanceor random event?


Genetic Drift which is due to


What is it called when a few organisms leave their original habitat and start a new colony with fewer allele frequency than the original colony?


What is it called when a few organisms leave their original habitat and start a new colony with fewer allele frequency than the original colony?

FOUNDER EFFECT


A habitat and start a new colony with fewer allele frequency than the original colony?species is an organism that can _____________ and produce ____________ __________.

Horse

Donkey

Mule


A habitat and start a new colony with fewer allele frequency than the original colony?species is an organism that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring.

Horse

Donkey

Mules are not a species


Why do some species evolve faster than others? Example: antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)


Why do some species evolve faster than others? Example: antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)

Bacteria reproduce so rapidly they can mutate (change/evolve) faster than larger organisms that reproduce slower.


What is antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)natural selection?

What is artificial selection?


Natural Selection: antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)Nature selects the best traits for survival

Changes allele frequency

Artificial selection: Man selects best traits to breed.


Name antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)3 types of “Reproductive Isolation”

Define each one.


Types of Reproductive Isolation antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)

Behavioral Isolation: Traits or habits preventing reproduction (the mating song or dance of a bird)

Geographical Isolation: Land separation of individuals in a species keeping them from reproducing (oceans, rivers, canyons, etc.)

Temporal Isolation: Mating season is different such as winter vs. spring or April vs. October or night vs. day.


Name the following graphs and describe what is happening. antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)

1

2

3


Name the following graphs and describe what is happening. antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)

Stabilizing: The average (middle) individuals of a species are fittest.

1

Disruptive: The individuals at the outer ends are fittest.

2

Directional: The individuals at one end are fittest.

3


What is antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)convergent evolution?

What is divergent evolution?


What is antibiotic resistant bacteria (don’t respond to an antibiotic)convergent evolution?

Two species that had different ancestors but due to living in the same environment, they look alike such as the dolphin and shark.

What is divergent evolution?

Two or more species have the same ancestor but have branched off into new species.



What type of evolution is this when one species must evolve along with another for survival?

Coevolution


During the Industrial Age, smog caused trees with lichen (white fungi/algae) to die and coated the trees with black soot. This caused a situation called melanism: an increased amount of black or nearly black pigmentation (as of skin, feathers, or hair) of an organism.

White moths became more black to survive being eaten.


Peppered Moth & (white fungi/algae) to die and coated the trees with black soot. This caused a situation called

Melanism

Best

environment

for white moths to avoid being eaten by birds

Best environment for black moths

to avoid being eaten by birds

Environmental Pressure!


Half-Life Calculations (white fungi/algae) to die and coated the trees with black soot. This caused a situation called

Calculate the following if the half-life of an element is 200 years…

The starting mass was 500 grams and ending mass is 31.25 grams.

How many half-lives?

How old is the element?

How much of element is left (fraction)?


Half-Life Calculations (white fungi/algae) to die and coated the trees with black soot. This caused a situation called

Calculate the following if the half-life of an element is 200 years…

The starting mass was 500 grams and ending mass is 31.25 grams.

(Hint: Divide by 2 until you reach the mass you are looking for.)

500 g 250g 125g 62.5g 31.25g

1/2

1/4

1/8

1/16

1

2

3

4 Half-Lives

200 yrs

400 yrs

600 yrs

800 yrs old




DNA Matching: Which puppy came from the mother dog? ancestors?

Mom Dog Puppy 1 Puppy 2 Puppy 3


DNA Matching: Which puppy came from the mother dog? ancestors?

Mom Dog Puppy 1 Puppy 2 Puppy 3


What lead to the increase in ancestors?oxygen on the Earth’s surface millions of years ago?


What lead to the increase in ancestors?oxygen on the Earth’s surface millions of years ago?

Photosynthetic

Bacteria


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