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Review and Quiz. Unit 4 Evolution. 1. What are the 4 requirements for Natural selection?

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Review and Quiz

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Review and quiz

Review and Quiz

Unit 4

Evolution


Review and quiz

  • 1. What are the 4 requirements for Natural selection?

  • 2. Using the field mouse as an example, a brown mouse lives in an area, explain using as many of your vocabulary terms as possible, how a change to the environment may lead to a change in their fur color over time. Underline each vocabulary term you correctly use in your explanation.

  • 3. If I find out 2 organisms have homologous structures, what can I infer?

  • 4. If I find out 2 organisms have analogous structures, what can I infer?


1 what are the 4 requirements for natural selection

1. What are the 4 requirements for Natural selection?

  • Nature selects the traits best suited for survival based on the following criteria:

  • 1. organisms in a population are naturally different from each other.

  • 2. the differences are inherited from their parents and can be passed on to their offspring.

  • 3. Populations tend to overproduce, there is not enough food or resources for the number produced leading to competition

  • 4. Some of the variations provide an advantage to the ability to survive and reproduce more offspring compared to the others with out that variation.


Review and quiz

  • 2. Using the field mouse as an example, a brown mouse lives in an area, explain using as many of your vocabulary terms as possible, how a change to the environment may lead to a change in their fur color over time. Underline each vocabulary term you correctly use in your explanation.

  • Camouflage, fitness, natural selection, etc…


Review and quiz

  • 3. If I find out 2 organisms have homologous structures, what can I infer?

  • They have a common ancestor but lived in different environments ( divergent evolution)


Review and quiz

  • 4. If I find out 2 organisms have analogous structures, what can I infer?

  • They do not share a common ancestor but did perhaps live in a similar environment and develop similar adaptations ( convergent evolution)


Review topics

Review topics

  • Law of superposition!

  • What is it and what can we learn from it?


Review and quiz

  • What usually happens to make geologists change from one geologic time period to another? Hint what happened at the end of each era?


Review and quiz

  • What do scientist think caused the end of the Mesozoic era?

  • What are some of the possible explanations for how this could have happened?


Review and quiz

  • Compare and contrast Biogenesis and spontaneous generation.

  • Which is currently accepted?

  • But which one would have had to occur for the VERY first cell to form?


Origin of life primordial soup or chemical evolution theory

Origin of life/ primordial soupor chemical evolution theory

  • The most likely order of events for the origin of life in the oceans of early like is…


Primordial soup chemical evolution

Primordial soup/ Chemical evolution

  • abiotic synthesis of amino acids and other organic molecules

  • synthesis of proteins

  • development of a genetic code ( RNA)

  • Cell membranes/ evolution of cells


What did miller and urey do

What did Miller and Urey do?


Miller and urey

Miller and Urey

  • Did an experiment to try to determine what the earth’s early conditions were like and if they could recreate them and form life!


Were the first cells on earth prokaryotic or eukaryotic how do we know

Were the first cells on earth prokaryotic or eukaryotic?How do we know?


First life was prokaryotic single celled

First life was prokaryotic single celled!

  • Fossil evidence shows the first cells were like current Archaebacteria.

  • Archaebacteria thrive in extreme environments of intense heat or pressure, and microfossils suggest early life forms lived in volcanic environments.


Cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

  • cyanobacteria contain green pigments and had no nucleus.

  • Are they prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

  • With green pigment, what could they likely do?

  • What gas did they likely give off?

  • What layer of the early earth atmosphere did this produce?

  • What did this allow to happen?


Review and quiz

  • cyanobacteria contain green pigments and had no nucleus.

  • Are they prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

  • With green pigment, what could they likely do? Photosynthesize

  • What gas did they likely give off? oxygen

  • What layer of the early earth atmosphere did this produce? ozone

  • What did this allow to happen? Life to move out of the oceans and on to the land!


Endosymbiont theory

endosymbiont theory

  • What is it?

  • What is the evidence for it?

  • What 2 organelles are most likely formed by this process?


Review and quiz

  • What is it? How eukaryotic cells developed by prokaryotic engulfing each other and living in a symbiotic relationship.

  • What is the evidence for it?

  • Double membranes ( due to phagocytosis of one cell by another), own circular DNA, replicate, ribosomes…

  • What 2 organelles are most likely formed by this process?

  • Chloroplasts and mitochondria


Age of fossils

Age of fossils

  • What are these?

  • What information do they give us?

  • Relative age:

  • Absolute age:


Age of fossils1

Age of fossils

  • What are these?

  • What information do they give us?

  • Relative age: the position of the rock layer

  • Absolute age: radiometric dating


What is the currently accepted theory of evolution

What is the Currently accepted theory of Evolution?


Currently accepted theory of evolution

Currently accepted theory of Evolution

  • Evolution occurred due to random mutations leading to variations selected by nature to pass on to the next generation.


What is directional selection

What is directional selection?

  • Can you give an example of how it would look on a graph?


Directional selection

directional selection

  • When a population is moving in one direction due to the environment selecting for one genotype over another.

  • In this case for the darker color


Review and quiz

  • What is the difference between Mimicry and camouflage?


Mimicry vs camouflage

Mimicry VS camouflage

  • Mimicry involved looking like a specific species to avoid being eaten or harmed.

  • Camouflage is a way to hind in your environment.

  • So are stick bugs using mimicry or camouflage?

  • Is the viceroy butterfly using mimicry or camouflage?


Natural selection and evolution

Natural selection and evolution

  • How are they related?


Review and quiz

  • Natural selection is a mechanism by which evolution occurs.


What do homologous structures tell us about two organisms that have them

What do Homologous structures tell us about two organisms that have them?


Homologous

Homologous

  • Homologous structures indicate a common ancestor

  • Like ?


Analogous structures

Analogous Structures

  • Indicate no common ancestor!

  • But a common environment….convergent evolution due to similar environmental situations like water or a need to fly.

  • Insect wings and bird wings. A fish fin and a whale flipper.


What do vestigial structures tell us about organisms

What do Vestigial structures tell us about organisms?


Vestigial left overs

Vestigial “left overs”

  • Vestigial structures point to a common ancestor.

  • Structures that have gotten smaller but show that they were once there and are no longer being used…show relationships.


Hardy weinberg principle

Hardy-Weinberg principle

  • Populations in genetic equilibrium.

  • Are the gene frequencies changing?


Review and quiz

  • Populations in genetic equilibrium.

  • Are the gene frequencies changing?

  • NO they are in equilibrium and must meet the stict requirements!


Biochemical evidence

biochemical evidence

  • When we compare the similarities of DNA and gene sequences for specific proteins between different organisms we get biochemical evidence.

  • The more closely related the less differences there are in the gene sequences.

  • Such as comparing DNA sequences or the amino acid sequence of a protein.


Primates

Primates

  • Show an increased brain cavity size over time.

  • This correlates with an increase in brain size and complex thinking.


Primates1

Primates

  • Forward facing eyes provide?

  • A prehensile tail is needed for what?


Primates2

Primates

  • Forward facing eyes provide?

  • excellent depth perception, like what was needed for swinging from tree to tree!

  • A prehensile tail is needed for what?

  • Living in a tree! Holding on!


Australopithecus

Australopithecus

  • What did “Lucy” teach us?


Australopithecus1

Australopithecus

  • “Lucy”indicatesthat bipedalism evolved before large brains!

  • Kind of the missing link.


Review and quiz

HOMO

  • development of culture sets apart

  • Homo sapiens sapiens from the earlier ancestors to modern man.


Fitness

Fitness

  • Why do some organisms survive and others don’t?


Fitness1

Fitness

  • Why do some organisms survive and others don’t?

  • they have a natural variation that allows them to survive and reproduce better than the other organisms.


Genetic drift

Genetic Drift

  • Random. By chance

  • Founder effect and bottle neck are examples.

  • Does genetic drift effect small or large populations the most?


Review and quiz

  • Small !


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