Chemical Formulas I. Ionic Substances – a.k.a. salts A. Profile 1. Made of metal ( cation / +) and a nonmetal ( anion/ - ) 2. Form crystal lattices that are brittle, will cleave or break along crystal planes 3. High melting points
I. Ionic Substances – a.k.a. salts
1. Made of metal ( cation / +) and a nonmetal ( anion/ - )
2. Form crystal lattices that are brittle, will cleave or break along crystal planes
3. High melting points
4. Dissolve in water to create ions which conduct electricity
B. Writing formulas
1. Write the symbols for the cation, then the anion
2. Find the charges for each using the periodic table for the cations and your reference chart for the anions
Things to Note:
3. The number of electrons lost must equal the number of electrons gained. Place subscripts next to the cation and anion which will make the total number of electrons the same.
*Technique : The Switcheroo : Use the charge on the cation as the subscript for the anion and visa versa.
4. Reduce the numbers if possible. Always use the lowest whole number ratios
1. Write the name of the cation and the name of the anion.
2. If the anion is from the periodic table, change the ending to – ide
3. Use a Roman numeral to indicate the charge on transition metals, with multiple charges. Refer to your agenda periodic tables for examples. Use the reverse switcheroo to determine the charge if needed.
Any home base anion from your chart, your text, your homework, your ingredient labels or anywhere around the world, can be represented in all four ways by adjusting the name or number of O in the formula !
1. FeSO3 : 12. CuCH3COO:
2. Cu(NO3)2: 13. N2O4:
3. Hg2Cl2: 14. Rb3P
4. AgBr: 15. S8
5. KClO3: 16. Fe2O3
6. MgCO3: 17. (NH4)2SO3
7. BaO2: 18. Ca(MnO4)2
8. KO2: 19. PF5
9. SnO2: 20. LiH
10. Pb(OH)2: 21. Ti(HPO4)2
iron II sulfite
copper I acetate
copper II nitrate
dinitrogen tetra oxide
mercury I chloride
iron III oxide
tin IV oxide
lead II hydroxide
titanium IV mono hydrogen phosphate
nickel II phosphate
1. vanadium V oxide 12. tin II carbonate
2. dihydrogen monoxide 13. sodium hydrogen carbonate
3. ammonium oxalate 14. manganese VII oxide
4. polonium IV thiocyanate 15. copper II dihydrogen phosphate
5. tetraphosphorus decaoxide 16. francium dichromate
6. zinc hydroxide 17. calcium carbide
7. potassium cyanide 18. mercury I nitrate
8. cesium tartrate 19. cerium IV benzoate
9. oxygen molecule 20. potassium hydrogen phthalate
10. mercury II acetate
11. silver chromate
1. Made of nonmetals only ( no charges!)
2. Found as solids, liquids or gases ( no crystal lattices)
3. Low melting points
4. Do not dissolve in water or conduct electricity
1. Write the symbols for the elements present in the order they appear.
2. Use subscripts to indicate the number of atoms of each element present as indicated by the prefixes in the name
1-mono 2-di 3-tri 4-tetra 5-penta 6-hexa
7-hepta 8-octa 9-nona 10-deca 11-undeca 12-dodeca
3. Do not reduce the numbers for the subscripts. These represent the minimum number of atoms needed for the substance in question.
C. Naming formulas
1. Write the name of each of the elements in the compound in the order they appear.
2. Change the ending of the last element to -ide
3. Use the prefixes to indicate the number of atoms present. If there is an o vowel repeated then only include it once
4. Do not use mono on the first element
1. Made of mostly nonmetals, hydrogen is always present and usually is at the beginning or end of the formula
2. Dissolves in water to produce H+ ions and anions
3. Covalently bonded polyatomic ions, ionic bonds with H
4. Named as ionic substances with a twist
Hydro + ic + acid
The acid phrase that pays: Say it with me now!
ate to ic, ite to ous, ide to hydro,ic acid. Again!
1. Always contain carbon and hydrogen, may also include other elements
2. Covalently bonded chains, rings or small molecules
3. Classified according to # or carbons, bond type and/or functional groups attached
meth = 1 eth = 2 prop = 3 but = 4 pent = 5
hex = 6 hept = 7 oct = 8 non = 9 dec = 10
b. alkanes : simplest organic compounds – only single bonds
i. Cn H2n+2
ii. –ane ending
i. Cn H2n( only works for one double bond)
ii. –ene ending
i. Cn H2n-2
ii. –yne ending
i. follows pattern for alk designation
ii. anol ending – single bonds
iii. enol ending – double bonds
iv. ynol ending – triple bonds
***Identify substituents attached to the molecule by location, quantity and alphabetically by name. ( These changes will take place at the beginning of the name/formula
Chains of one or more carbon ( methyl,ethyl,propyl,butyl,pentyl&..)
Halogens ( chloro,bromo,iodo,fluoro)
What if…….there is a ring ? location, quantity and alphabetically by name. ( These changes will take place at the beginning of the name/formula
Cyclo should preceed the name
What if there are double, triple bonds ?
Identify which carbon they are on, by counting from the end closest to the
What if there are multiple double or triple bonds? location, quantity and alphabetically by name. ( These changes will take place at the beginning of the name/formula
Identify which carbon they are on by counting from the end closest to the
first one and keep numbering from then on.
What if there are other atoms attached and multiple bonds?
Number the carbons based on the location of the multiple bond and use those numbers to identify the locations of the other atoms attached.
Number the carbons based on the location of the first multiple bond and indicate the attachments first, then the location of the multiple bonds by number and with a prefix tucked into the final part of the name.