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Operating System. U2M3 Lecture 4 Process Management – Scheduling Algorithms. Objectives. Explain the purpose of scheduling List scheduling Criteria Discuss types of scheduling algorithms. Scheduling Algorithm. The scheduling algorithm is a part of the operating system that

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operating system

Operating System

U2M3 Lecture 4

Process Management –

Scheduling Algorithms

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain the purpose of scheduling
  • List scheduling Criteria
  • Discuss types of scheduling algorithms
scheduling algorithm
Scheduling Algorithm
  • The scheduling algorithm is a part of the operating system that
    • decides which processes should be running on the CPU (in what order) and for how long.
    • Maximizes CPU utilization – keep the CPU as busy as possible
context switching
Context Switching
  • A context switch (a process switch / a task switch) is the switching of the CPU from one process to another
scheduling concerns criteria
Scheduling Concerns / Criteria
  • Throughput – Number of processes that complete their execution per time unit
  • Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a particular process
  • Waiting time – amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue
  • Response time – amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced.
non pre emptive and pre emptive scheduling algorithms
Non-pre-emptive and pre-emptive Scheduling algorithms

A non-pre-emptive (Atomic) algorithm runs a process to completion once it has the CPU.

A pre-emptive algorithm gives each process a time slice (Quantum) and then switching the CPU\'s attention among the processes. (process switching /context switching)

Each process is allowed to execute for no longer than one time slice so a job may be require many time slices.

scheduling algorithms
Scheduling Algorithms
  • First come first served (FCFS)
  • Shortest job first;
  • Round Robin ;
first come first served fcfs non pre emptive
First Come First Served(FCFS) non-pre-emptive
  • Processes are dispatched according to their arrival time on the ready queue. Being a non-pre-emptive discipline, once a process has a CPU, it runs to completion.
  • The FCFS scheduling not optimal
    • long jobs make short jobs wait and
    • unimportant jobs make important jobs wait.
shortest job first sjf non pre emptive
Shortest Job First (SJF) non-pre-emptive
  • Shortest-Job-First (SJF) is an algorithm in which waiting job (or process) with the smallest estimated run-time-to-completion is run next.
  • The SJF scheduling is especially appropriate for batch jobs for which the run times are known in advance.
  • SJF gives the minimum average time for a given set of processes, it is more optimal than FCFS.
  • The problem with SJF scheme is that it requires precise knowledge of how long a job or process will run,
    • not usually available.
    • rely on user
shortest remaining time first srtf pre emptive
Shortest Remaining Time First (SRTF) pre-emptive
  • Shortest-Remaining Time First (SRTF) algorithm is a pre-emptive version of SJF.
  • In which if a new process arrives with CPU burst length less than the remaining time of current executing process, the current process is pre-empted. The CPU switches to execute the new process.
round robin pre emptive
Round Robin pre-emptive
  • This scheduling policy gives each process a slice of time (i.e., one quantum) before being pre-empted.
  • As each process becomes ready, it joins the ready queue.
  • A clock interrupt is generated at periodic intervals.
round robin pre emptive1
Round Robin pre-emptive
  • When the interrupt occurs, the currently running process is pre-empted, and
  • the oldest process in the ready queue is selected to run next.
  • The time interval between each interrupt may vary.
  • Click to see animation
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