Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents
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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM  More than 10 patents  Most procedures no more efficacious than folk methods 2+ millennia ago. BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY  Patent holder: USDA  Inventor: Lawrence Johnson  Non-human sperm – exclusive license to XY, Inc.

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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM  More than 10 patents

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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM

More than 10 patents

Most procedures no moreefficacious than folk methods2+ millennia ago


BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY

Patent holder: USDA

Inventor: Lawrence Johnson

Non-human sperm – exclusivelicense to XY, Inc.

Human sperm – exclusivelicense to Genetics and IVF


Problem – sperm are paddle-shaped

Accurate measurement – flat orientation to laser

Flattened needle – ribbon of fluid


Discard non-viable sperm

Discard poorly-oriented sperm

Discard sperm that overlap in DNA fluorescence

Discard drops that contain X and Y sperm


SORT RATES – LIVE X-SPERM90% ACCURACY

Median20 x 106/hr

Maximum 35 x 106/hr


SPERM INSULTS

Waiting to be sorted

High concentration H33342

High laser power

Exit at 80 km/hour

Very high dilution

Centrifuge to concentrate

Cryopreservation


SEMEN FROZEN IN HOMOGENIZED MILK, ET SHEATHS, BOTH HORNS

2-Mo.Sperm no. (n) Preg. rate (%)LS mean

200,0001525451**

500,0001706866

10,000,0001536764

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO


Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 6 Trials AI into Uterine Body

1 or 1.5 x 106 sexed sperm98/176, 56%

3 x 106 sexed sperm88/171, 51%

20 x 106 control sperm 124/183, 68%


Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 5 Trials

1 or 1.5 x 10670/163, 43%sexed sperm, body

1 or 1.5 x 106 85/158, 54%sexed sperm, horn

20 x 106 control 79/128, 62%sperm, body


Timing of AI and Pregnancy Rates, Sexed Sperm

0.5 day266/586, 45.4%

1.0 day203/414, 49.0%


Recent Field Trial – Holstein Heifers(3 bulls, 2 inseminators)

TreatmentNo. % pregnant

2 x 106 sperm sexed17956%

10 x 106 sperm sexed18062%

10 x 106 sperm, control 8861%

Schenk et al., 2005


LACTATING BEEF COWS2-Month Pregnancy Rates

No. (%)TreatmentNo. sperm pregnant

Control, frozen 20 x 106 15/21 (71%)abody

Sexed, frozen, 3 x 106 23/42 (55%)abbody

Sexed, frozen3 x 106 19/42 (45%)bhorns

ab P<.05


Lactating Dairy Cows Selected at AI

Sperm %% treatmentNpreg female

2 x 106 sexed 57 3791

10 x 106 sexed 57 4095

10 x 106 control 58 5352

Schenk et al., 2006


SIMILAR FERTILITY

Sexed frozen vs unfrozen

1-1.5 vs 3 x 106 sexed, frozen sperm

Horn vs body AI – 4 of 5 trials

12 vs 24 h post-estrus AI

Among bulls with excellent semen

Among well-trained inseminators


Superovulation of Angus Cows and Heifers

No. %No. goodflushesfertilized embryos

2 x 106 sexed 3040a3.3asperm

10 x 106 sexed 3049a4.1asperm

40 x 106 control 2969b8.7bsperm

ab P<0.05


Accuracy of Sexing Sperm

89%

N = 1,036 calves born


Normality of Calves from Sexed Sperm

SexedControl

No.a 1158787Abortion rate (%)4.55.0Gestation length (3) 279279Neonatal death (%)3.54.0Calving ease score1.221.23Birth weight (kg) 33.9 34.1Live at weaning (%) 91.7 91.5Weaning weight (kg)239241

a N were lower for some responses.


Sex Differences in Calves

MaleFemale

Number 6951,250

Birth weight (kg) 35.2a 32.8b

Weaning weight (kg) 247a 234b

Calving ease (1-4) 1.30a 1.15b

Gestation length (d)279.6a 278.4b

Death of calves (%) 8.9 7.8

ab P<0.01


CURRENT DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING

ObjectiveProduct

Herd replacements --40% females (ideal)breed 80% of herd40% males (by-product)with dairy semen

Meat production --10% females (by-product)breed 20% of herd10% males (ideal)with beef semen


LENGTHENED LACTATION PROGRAM

Many problems at parturition

BST makes longer lactations profitable

Programs averaging 2 calves/lifetime require sex control


Status of Commercialization

XY, Inc. owns / controls patents

Genetic Resources International

Select Sires

Pricing – unclear


Monsanto Technology

16 nozzle sorter

Currently field trials

Genex

Alta

Pricing – unclear


Countries Producing Sexed Semen CommerciallyUnited KingdomArgentinaSwitzerlandJapanMexicoBrazilUnited StatesCanadaChina


DISTORTED SEX RATIOS

IVF55% males

Older cows53% males

AI or natural mating51% males


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