Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents
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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM  More than 10 patents  Most procedures no more efficacious than folk methods 2+ millennia ago. BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY  Patent holder: USDA  Inventor: Lawrence Johnson  Non-human sperm – exclusive license to XY, Inc.

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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM  More than 10 patents

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Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM

More than 10 patents

Most procedures no moreefficacious than folk methods2+ millennia ago


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY

Patent holder: USDA

Inventor: Lawrence Johnson

Non-human sperm – exclusivelicense to XY, Inc.

Human sperm – exclusivelicense to Genetics and IVF


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Problem – sperm are paddle-shaped

Accurate measurement – flat orientation to laser

Flattened needle – ribbon of fluid


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Discard non-viable sperm

Discard poorly-oriented sperm

Discard sperm that overlap in DNA fluorescence

Discard drops that contain X and Y sperm


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

SORT RATES – LIVE X-SPERM90% ACCURACY

Median20 x 106/hr

Maximum 35 x 106/hr


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

SPERM INSULTS

Waiting to be sorted

High concentration H33342

High laser power

Exit at 80 km/hour

Very high dilution

Centrifuge to concentrate

Cryopreservation


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

SEMEN FROZEN IN HOMOGENIZED MILK, ET SHEATHS, BOTH HORNS

2-Mo.Sperm no. (n) Preg. rate (%)LS mean

200,0001525451**

500,0001706866

10,000,0001536764

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 6 Trials AI into Uterine Body

1 or 1.5 x 106 sexed sperm98/176, 56%

3 x 106 sexed sperm88/171, 51%

20 x 106 control sperm 124/183, 68%


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 5 Trials

1 or 1.5 x 10670/163, 43%sexed sperm, body

1 or 1.5 x 106 85/158, 54%sexed sperm, horn

20 x 106 control 79/128, 62%sperm, body


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Timing of AI and Pregnancy Rates, Sexed Sperm

0.5 day266/586, 45.4%

1.0 day203/414, 49.0%


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Recent Field Trial – Holstein Heifers(3 bulls, 2 inseminators)

TreatmentNo. % pregnant

2 x 106 sperm sexed17956%

10 x 106 sperm sexed18062%

10 x 106 sperm, control 8861%

Schenk et al., 2005


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

LACTATING BEEF COWS2-Month Pregnancy Rates

No. (%)TreatmentNo. sperm pregnant

Control, frozen 20 x 106 15/21 (71%)abody

Sexed, frozen, 3 x 106 23/42 (55%)abbody

Sexed, frozen3 x 106 19/42 (45%)bhorns

ab P<.05


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Lactating Dairy Cows Selected at AI

Sperm %% treatmentNpreg female

2 x 106 sexed 57 3791

10 x 106 sexed 57 4095

10 x 106 control 58 5352

Schenk et al., 2006


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

SIMILAR FERTILITY

Sexed frozen vs unfrozen

1-1.5 vs 3 x 106 sexed, frozen sperm

Horn vs body AI – 4 of 5 trials

12 vs 24 h post-estrus AI

Among bulls with excellent semen

Among well-trained inseminators


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Superovulation of Angus Cows and Heifers

No. %No. goodflushesfertilized embryos

2 x 106 sexed 3040a3.3asperm

10 x 106 sexed 3049a4.1asperm

40 x 106 control 2969b8.7bsperm

ab P<0.05


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Accuracy of Sexing Sperm

89%

N = 1,036 calves born


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Normality of Calves from Sexed Sperm

SexedControl

No.a 1158787Abortion rate (%)4.55.0Gestation length (3) 279279Neonatal death (%)3.54.0Calving ease score1.221.23Birth weight (kg) 33.9 34.1Live at weaning (%) 91.7 91.5Weaning weight (kg)239241

a N were lower for some responses.


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Sex Differences in Calves

MaleFemale

Number 6951,250

Birth weight (kg) 35.2a 32.8b

Weaning weight (kg) 247a 234b

Calving ease (1-4) 1.30a 1.15b

Gestation length (d)279.6a 278.4b

Death of calves (%) 8.9 7.8

ab P<0.01


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

CURRENT DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING

ObjectiveProduct

Herd replacements --40% females (ideal)breed 80% of herd40% males (by-product)with dairy semen

Meat production --10% females (by-product)breed 20% of herd10% males (ideal)with beef semen


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

LENGTHENED LACTATION PROGRAM

Many problems at parturition

BST makes longer lactations profitable

Programs averaging 2 calves/lifetime require sex control


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Status of Commercialization

XY, Inc. owns / controls patents

Genetic Resources International

Select Sires

Pricing – unclear


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Monsanto Technology

16 nozzle sorter

Currently field trials

Genex

Alta

Pricing – unclear


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

Countries Producing Sexed Semen CommerciallyUnited KingdomArgentinaSwitzerlandJapanMexicoBrazilUnited StatesCanadaChina


Patents on sexing sperm more than 10 patents

DISTORTED SEX RATIOS

IVF55% males

Older cows53% males

AI or natural mating51% males


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