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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM  More than 10 patents  Most procedures no more efficacious than folk methods 2+ millennia ago. BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY  Patent holder: USDA  Inventor: Lawrence Johnson  Non-human sperm – exclusive license to XY, Inc.

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PATENTS ON SEXING SPERM

 More than 10 patents

 Most procedures no more efficacious than folk methods 2+ millennia ago


BELTSVILLE SPERM SEXING TECHNOLOGY

 Patent holder: USDA

 Inventor: Lawrence Johnson

 Non-human sperm – exclusive license to XY, Inc.

 Human sperm – exclusive license to Genetics and IVF


Problem – sperm are paddle-shaped

Accurate measurement – flat orientation to laser

Flattened needle – ribbon of fluid


Discard non-viable sperm

Discard poorly-oriented sperm

Discard sperm that overlap in DNA fluorescence

Discard drops that contain X and Y sperm


SORT RATES – LIVE X-SPERM90% ACCURACY

Median 20 x 106/hr

Maximum 35 x 106/hr


SPERM INSULTS

 Waiting to be sorted

 High concentration H33342

 High laser power

 Exit at 80 km/hour

 Very high dilution

 Centrifuge to concentrate

 Cryopreservation


SEMEN FROZEN IN HOMOGENIZED MILK, ET SHEATHS, BOTH HORNS

2-Mo.Sperm no. (n) Preg. rate (%) LS mean

200,000 152 54 51**

500,000 170 68 66

10,000,000 153 67 64

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO


Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 6 Trials AI into Uterine Body

1 or 1.5 x 106 sexed sperm 98/176, 56%

3 x 106 sexed sperm 88/171, 51%

20 x 106 control sperm 124/183, 68%


Sexed, Frozen Semen Pregnancy Rates – 5 Trials Uterine Body

1 or 1.5 x 106 70/163, 43% sexed sperm, body

1 or 1.5 x 106 85/158, 54% sexed sperm, horn

20 x 106 control 79/128, 62% sperm, body


Timing of AI and Pregnancy Rates, Sexed Sperm Uterine Body

0.5 day 266/586, 45.4%

1.0 day 203/414, 49.0%


Recent Field Trial – Holstein Heifers Uterine Body(3 bulls, 2 inseminators)

Treatment No. % pregnant

2 x 106 sperm sexed 179 56%

10 x 106 sperm sexed 180 62%

10 x 106 sperm, control 88 61%

Schenk et al., 2005


LACTATING BEEF COWS Uterine Body2-Month Pregnancy Rates

No. (%)Treatment No. sperm pregnant

Control, frozen 20 x 106 15/21 (71%)a body

Sexed, frozen, 3 x 106 23/42 (55%)ab body

Sexed, frozen 3 x 106 19/42 (45%)b horns

ab P<.05


Lactating Dairy Cows Selected at AI Uterine Body

Sperm % % treatment N preg female

2 x 106 sexed 57 37 91

10 x 106 sexed 57 40 95

10 x 106 control 58 53 52

Schenk et al., 2006


SIMILAR FERTILITY Uterine Body

Sexed frozen vs unfrozen

1-1.5 vs 3 x 106 sexed, frozen sperm

Horn vs body AI – 4 of 5 trials

12 vs 24 h post-estrus AI

Among bulls with excellent semen

Among well-trained inseminators


Superovulation of Angus Cows and Heifers Uterine Body

No. % No. good flushes fertilized embryos

2 x 106 sexed 30 40a 3.3a sperm

10 x 106 sexed 30 49a 4.1a sperm

40 x 106 control 29 69b 8.7b sperm

ab P<0.05


Accuracy of Sexing Sperm Uterine Body

89%

N = 1,036 calves born


Normality of Calves from Sexed Sperm Uterine Body

Sexed Control

No.a 1158 787Abortion rate (%) 4.5 5.0Gestation length (3) 279 279Neonatal death (%) 3.5 4.0Calving ease score 1.22 1.23Birth weight (kg) 33.9 34.1Live at weaning (%) 91.7 91.5Weaning weight (kg) 239 241

a N were lower for some responses.


Sex Differences in Calves Uterine Body

Male Female

Number 695 1,250

Birth weight (kg) 35.2a 32.8b

Weaning weight (kg) 247a 234b

Calving ease (1-4) 1.30a 1.15b

Gestation length (d) 279.6 a 278.4b

Death of calves (%) 8.9 7.8

ab P<0.01


CURRENT DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING Uterine Body

Objective Product

Herd replacements -- 40% females (ideal)breed 80% of herd 40% males (by-product)with dairy semen

Meat production -- 10% females (by-product)breed 20% of herd 10% males (ideal)with beef semen


LENGTHENED LACTATION PROGRAM Uterine Body

Many problems at parturition

BST makes longer lactations profitable

Programs averaging 2 calves/lifetime require sex control


Status of Commercialization Uterine Body

XY, Inc. owns / controls patents

Genetic Resources International

Select Sires

Pricing – unclear


Monsanto Technology Uterine Body

16 nozzle sorter

Currently field trials

Genex

Alta

Pricing – unclear


Countries Producing Sexed Semen Commercially Uterine BodyUnited KingdomArgentinaSwitzerlandJapanMexicoBrazilUnited StatesCanadaChina


DISTORTED SEX RATIOS Uterine Body

IVF 55% males

Older cows 53% males

AI or natural mating 51% males


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