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How we learn from experience. Memory and Amnesia. Thorndike Puzzle box. KW 13-3. Pursuit rotor. KW 13-6. Verbal Memory. Remember the following letters PBSFOXBETABCCBSMTVNBC. Recall as many letters as you can. Verbal Memory. Remember the following letters

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Presentation Transcript
verbal memory
Verbal Memory
  • Remember the following letters
  • PBSFOXBETABCCBSMTVNBC
verbal memory6
Verbal Memory
  • Remember the following letters
  • PBS FOX BET ABC CBS MTV NBC
memory declarative vs procedural
Memory: Declarative vs Procedural

Declarative-the ability to state a memory in words: ABOUT THINGS

Example: Remembering your mother’s maiden name.

Procedural-the development of motor skills: HOW TO DO THINGS

Example: Riding a bicycle.

Episodic – life experiences; biographic details of own life;

Example: HS graduation ceremony

memory explicit vs implicit
Memory: Explicit vs Implicit

Explicit-deliberate recall of information that one recognizes as a memory

Conscious use of memory

Example: taking a multiple choice test.

Implicit-the influence of recent experience on behavior, even if one does not realize that one is using memory

Unconcious or unintended influences on memory

Example: ethnic facial preferences

short term and long term memory
Short-term and Long-term Memory

Short-term-events that have just occurred

Long-term-events from previous times

Memories that stay in short-term memory long enough are consolidated into long-term memory

memory model
Memory Model

Rehearsal

Long Term

Short Term

or

Working

Sensory

registers

Consolidation

Retrieval

Loss

Loss

working memory
Working Memory

Defined-the way we store information while working with it or attending to it

Components

Phonological loop-stores auditory info

Visuospatial sketchpad-stores visual info

Central executive-directs attention toward one stimulus or another

amnesia
Amnesia

Test

Today

New

Home

2001

Car crash

HS graduation

June 2000

High School Prom

1999

hippocampus and amnesia
Hippocampus and Amnesia

Anterograde Amnesia-loss of memories for events that happen after brain damage

Retrograde Amnesia-loss of memories that occurred shortly before brain damage

case of h m
Case of H.M.
  • Most studied person in psychology
  • Most important case study
  • H.M. had severe epilepsy in temporal lobes
  • William Scoville, neurosurgeon at

Hartford Hospital operated on HM in 1953

  • Removed ventral tips of temporal lobes
hm s brain
HM’s Brain

Both sides

KW 13-8

effects on hm
Effects on HM
  • Recall events from childhood
  • Can engage in conversations
  • Good semantic memory
  • Cannot recall events that have just happened
  • Cannot recall any new facts
  • Cannot remember new faces
memory model26
Memory Model

Rehearsal

Long Term

Short Term

or

Working

Sensory

registers

Consolidation

Retrieval

Loss

Loss

what is hm s deficit
What is HM’s deficit
  • Anterograde Amnesia for declarative memory: fact, events, people.
  • No concept of amount of time that has passed.
  • Still shows procedural memory: new tasks.
  • Some implicit memory: realizes that his parents have died.
korsakoff s syndrome
Korsakoff’s Syndrome

Korsakoff’s Syndrome- brain damage caused by long-term thiamine deficiency (both retrograde and anterograde amnesia)

alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease- severe memory loss associated with aging

Amyloid beta protein accumulates in the brain and impairs neuron function

Plaques

Tangles

how does learning happen

How does learning happen?

Function and structural changes

changes in function
Changes in Function
  • Existing brain cells
  • Donald Hebb (1904-1985)
  • Existing circuits start reverberatory circuits
  • Eventually form cell assemblies
  • Cell assemblies are memories
enriched environment
Enriched Environment

Creating novel circuits

over time

KW p. 514

memory
Memory
  • Anterograde: malfunction in memory consolidation
  • Retrograde: loss of “permanent” memories

most likely cell death on cortex

End

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