高中英语写作辅导
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高中英语写作辅导. Senior English Writing lecture (1) 主讲教师:沈伟刚 2005/3. Part One: 1. 解读“课程标准”关于写作技能的评价标准 . 2. 解读“课程标准”关于英语写作体裁问题 . “ 课程标准 ” 关于写作技能的评价标准 :. “ 课程标准 ” 关于英语写作体裁问题 :. 根据“课程标准” 6-9 级的有关要求,高中阶段英语 写作体裁可以大致分为四类: 应用文体: 包括日常生活中经常使用的书信、便条、电子邮件、贺卡、通知、报告、表格填写、申请、个人简历等。

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高中英语写作辅导

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高中英语写作辅导

Senior English Writing lecture

(1)

主讲教师:沈伟刚

2005/3


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Part One:

1.解读“课程标准”关于写作技能的评价标准.

2.解读“课程标准”关于英语写作体裁问题.


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“课程标准”关于写作技能的评价标准:


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“课程标准”关于英语写作体裁问题:

根据“课程标准”6-9级的有关要求,高中阶段英语

写作体裁可以大致分为四类:

  • 应用文体:包括日常生活中经常使用的书信、便条、电子邮件、贺卡、通知、报告、表格填写、申请、个人简历等。

  • 记叙文体:包括叙述事情,描写景物、人物。

  • 论说文体:包括阐述自己的观点,评价周围的事物、所发生的事件以及他人的观点和意见。

  • 其他要求:包括改编短剧、写摘要以及翻译。


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Part Two:

1.上海高考00-04年写作题目回顾。

2.高考英语写作命题现状与发展趋势。


00 04

上海高考00-04年写作题目回顾:

(00)1. 我最难忘的一课。2. 具体说明为何难

忘。3. 感想。(100-120 words)

(01)请你谈谈轿车大量进入家庭后,对家庭,

环境和经济可能产生的影响。 (100-120

words)


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(02)


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(03)你的好友因家境一般买不起名牌而闷闷

不乐。给他写封信,谈谈你的看法和建

议。(100-120 words)

收信人: 徐海青

寄信人: 黄平(不可用自己真实姓名)

写信日期:2003年6月8日

(04)老师要求你负责班级墙报工作并征求你意

见。在日记中表述你的决定并谈谈想法。

(wall newspaper)(120-150 words)


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  • 分析:

    试题要求考生根据所给的情景和要求写一篇书面材料。但它并非按照“提示”逐句翻译,而是要求考生在充分领会“提示”的前提下,用自己的语言组织成一篇内容充实、语言正确、句子连贯、用词贴切的作文。据统计,近几年上海和全国英语高考卷中的写作,主要是关于记人、叙事、写信和通知或看图作文等内容的记叙文、议论文和应用文。


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  • 记叙文:

    一般说来, 记叙文有时间、地点、人物、事件、原因和结果六要素。

    记人时,要注意介绍人物的身世、经历和事迹等。

    叙事时要描写事情发生与发展的过程,叙述事情发生的前因后果等。


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  • 议论文:

    一般说来, 议论文由论点、论据、论证三部分构成。要做到:

    1、论点正确无误。

    2、论据可靠充分。

    3、论证合理严密。论证方法有归纳法、推理法、对比法。

    议论文一般按提出问题、分析问题、解决问题的逻辑顺序来安排层次。


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  • 应用文:

    主要以写信为主。英文书信由6个部分组成。它们是信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语、签字。格式一定要正确。信的正文和写文章一样,要分段写,每一段有一个中心思想。


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高考英语写作命题现状与发展趋势:

1. 由单一的文字表述发展到看图作文,再到以列表的形式给出写作内容。

2. 叙述与议论相结合,是近几年高考试题的特点之一。

3. 高考可能涉及的文体仍是说明文、记叙文、议论文、书信和日记。


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Part Three:

  • 上海卷的评分标准与实例分析。

    2. 英语写作常见错误与分析。


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上海卷评分标准:


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评分标准:

1.总分为25分,其中内容10分,语言10分,组织结构5分。

2.评分时应注意的主要方面:内容要点,应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性及上下文的连贯性。

3.评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定所属档次,然后对照相应的组织结构档次给予加分。其中,内容和语言两部分相加,得15分或以上者,可考虑加4-5分,15分以下者只能考虑加0,1,2,3分。

4.词数少于70,总分最多不超过10分。


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内容部分

A.内容充实,主题突出,详略得当。

B.内容较充实,能表达出作文要求。

C.内容基本充实,尚能表达出作文要求。

D.漏掉或未能写清楚主要内容,有些内容与主题无关。

E.明显漏掉主要内容,严重离题。


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语言部分

A. 具有很好的语言表达能力,语法结构正确或有些

小错误,主要因为使用了较复杂结构或词汇所致。

B.具有较强的语言表达能力,语法结构和词汇的应用

基本正确,错误主要是因为尝试较复杂结构或词汇

所致。

C.有一些语法结构和词汇方面的错误,但不影响理解。

D.语法结构与词汇错误较多,影响了对内容的理解。

E.语法结构与词汇的错误很多,影响了对内容的理解。


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组织结构部分

A. 自然地使用了语句间的连接成分,全文流畅结构紧

凑。句子结构多样,词汇丰富。

B.  能使用语句间连接成分,全文流畅结构紧凑。句子

结构多样,词汇较丰富。

C.  能使用简单的语句间连接成分,全文内容连贯。句

子结构有一定的变化,词汇使用得当。

D.  尚能使用语句间连接成分,语言连贯性较差。句子

结构单调,词汇较贫乏。

E.  缺乏语句间的连接成分,语言不连贯,词不达意。


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2004年高考英语作文实例评析:

1.

Today teacher asked me to see to the wall newspaper. I was so happy. And I want to accept the task. And why? There are some reasons that can explain it. And the important ones as follows.

First of all, I was prond of seeing to the wall newspaper.

What’s more, wall newspaper is the window of my class. It’s a difficult job, but I have the ability to do it. Why I give up?

Last but not least, I’m good at paining. And my words is beautiful. And other students througout that I can do my best of it.


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不及格

分析:

Today ___ teacher asked me to see to the wall newspaper. I was so happy. And I want to accept the task. And why? There are some reasons that can explain it. And the important ones ___ as follows.

First of all, I was prond of seeing to the wall newspaper.

What’s more, wall newspaper is the window of my class. It’s a difficult job, but I have the ability to do it. Why ___ I give up?

Last but not least, I’m good at paining. And my words(?) is beautiful. And other students througout (?) that I can do my best of it (?).


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评析:

本文内容单薄,语言表达较随意,出现一些较为严重的语法错误和拼写错误,体现出考生的英语表达能力较差。

组织结构方面,文章看似完整,实际杂乱,中间部分first of all,what’s more,last but not least 的使用,即为一例。本文被判为不及格,得分为:

内容6分,语言6分,组织结构2分,总分为14分。


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2.

Today I was required to be in charge of the class wall newspaper. I thought it for a while and then decided to take the job.

Since the wall newspaper will be seen everyday. It’s form and contain are the most important. I think we can’t use only words, some beautiful pictures are necessary. There should be some big items on it, and behind it there can be our opinion about it. And we can give little common knowledge of all kinds of subjects and one or two jokes, all these makes it wonderful.

Then I think every student in the class may do the work together. Some have good handwriting while others draw well. Every week, we change it for a new one, a new topic.

And I think, if everyone can take part in the job. Our wall newspaper will be the best one.


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及格

分析:

Today I was required to be in charge of the class wall newspaper. I thought it for a while and then decided to take the job.

Since the wall newspaper will be seen everyday. It’s form and contain are the most important. I think we can’t use only words, ____ some beautiful pictures are necessary. There should be some big items(?) on it, and behind it(?) there can be our opinion about it. And we can give little(?) common knowledge of all kinds of subjects and one or two jokes, all these makes it wonderful.

Then I think every student in the class may do the work together. Some have good handwriting while others draw well. Every week, we change it for a new one, a new topic.

And I think, if everyone can take part in the job. Our wall newspaper will be the best one.


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评析:

本文虽然在内容上符合试题要求,但在语言表达方面存在一些问题,如:部分句与句之间的关系不明,造成少数标点符号使用不当;出现误用单词的情况,(如;contain 应为content);部分表达较为随意等等。当然组织结构基本符合要求。本文被判为及格,得分为:

内容8分,语言7分,组织结构3分,总分为18分。


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优秀

3.

I was so glad that the teacher asked me to make some plans for the wall newspaper today. And the suggestions for it are as follows.

First of all, there should be some information on the world issues. Although we high school students are busy with our study, we should keep an eye on what is going on around the world, which will broaden our horizons.

In addition, I suggest there be a section on our school life. For example, the news on the school sports meeting and the good methods of study in our class.

Finally, each group should prepare the wall newspaper in turns so that each student can have an opportunity to display his or her talent.

In a word, I hope the wall newspaper will be popular with the students in our school.


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评析:

本文考生在表明自己态度(愿意接受老师布置的负责班级墙报任务)后,给出了具体三条意见,最后希望大家喜欢自己设计的墙报。文章语言准确流畅,体现出考生已经具备了较强的英语表达能力,能够较好地使用单词、词组和句型。此外,文章结构完整。虽然客观地说,本文在内容和语言方面并非十全十美,但是考虑到考生是高三学生,又是在考试这一特定场合中完成的,所以本文被判为优秀,得分为:

内容9分,语言9分,组织结构5分,总分为23分。


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英语写作常见错误与分析:

一. 不一致(Disagreements)

例1.

When one have money, he can do what he want to .

剖析:

改为:


Once one has money he can do what he wants to do

Once one has money, he can do what he wants (to do)


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二. 修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)

例1.

I believe I can do it well and I will better

know the world outside the campus.

剖析:

改为:


I believe i can do it well and i will know the world outside the campus better

I believe I can do it well and I will

know the world outside the campus better.


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三. 句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)

例1.

There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio , newspaper and so on .

剖析:

改为:


There are many ways to know society for example by tv radio and newspaper

There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper.


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四. 悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)

例1:At the age of ten, my grandfather died.

改为:

When I was ten, my grandfather died.

例2:To do well in college, good grades are

essential.

剖析:

改为:


To do well in college a student needs good grades

To do well in college, a student needs good grades.


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五. 词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)

例1.

None can negative the importance of

money.

剖析:

改为:


None can deny the importance of money

None can deny the importance of money.


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六.指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

例1. Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

改为:

Mary was friendly to my sister because

she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

例2. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

剖析:

改为:


We can also know society by serving it ourselves

We can also know society by serving it ourselves.


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七. 不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)

例1. There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

剖析:

改为:


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There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.

或:

There are many ways through which we can become familiar with the outside world.


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八. 措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)

例1.

The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

剖析:

改为:


The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes leads to pollution

The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes / leads to pollution.


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九. 累赘(Redundancy)

如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

改为:

In spite of his laziness, I like him.

例1.For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

剖析:

改为:


Diligent caring people use money only to buy what they need

Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.


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十.不连贯(Incoherence)

例1.

The fresh water, it is the most important

things of the earth.

剖析:

改为:


Fresh water is the most important thing in the world

Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.


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May you succeed

in English writing!


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