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Light. Refraction. by Rifki Irawan. Based on how the light behaves as it encounters a substance, substances can be classified into:. Transparent substance is one through which you can see clearly.

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Light

Light

Refraction

by

RifkiIrawan


Light

Based on how the light behaves as it encounters a substance, substances can be classified into:

  • Transparentsubstance is one through which you can see clearly.

  • There is no substance known that is perfectly transparent, but many substances are nearly so; example : glass or water

  • Translucentis a material through which some light rays can pass, but through which objects cannot be seen clearly because the rays are diffused.

  • Translucent substances are made for special purposes; example : plastic

  • Opaqueis substances that are unable to transmit any light.

  • Opaque is the most visible substance among others; example : stone or wood


Light

Refraction

incident ray

normal

The bending of light as it moves from one medium to another. It is due to the difference in speeds of light in the two media.

When light travels from air into glass of water, its speed decrease.

A medium is said to be optically dense if its slows down the speed of light.

i

air

glass

r

A ray of light bends towards the normal when it enters an optically denser medium at an angle.

refracted ray


Light

incident ray

normal

When light travels from glass of water into air, its speed increase.

A medium is said to be optically less dense if its speed up the speed of light.

i

glass

air

refracted ray

r

A ray of light bends away from the normal when it enters an optically less densemedium at an angle.


Light

Laws of Refraction (Snell’s Law)

The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

For two given media, the ratio is a constant, where iis

the angle of incidence and r is the angle of refraction.

sin i

sin r

sin i

also known as the refractive index (n)

sin r

the refractive index (n) of a medium may also be defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that medium

speed of light in vacuum (or air)

n =

speed of light in medium


Light

c

speed of light in vacuum (or air)

n =

=

v

speed of light in medium

Example :

If the speed of light in air is 3.0 x 108 m • s-1 , find the speed of light in diamond of refractive index 2.42

A material has a refractive index of 1.7. A ray of light at an incident angle of 30 o enters the material. Calculate the angle of refraction.

A ray of light at an incident angle of 45 o. Its refraction angle is 60 o. Find its refractive index.

A light is refracted on the glass by the angle of incident 40 o. If the speed of light in air is 3.0 x 108 m • s-1. And the speed of light in the glass is 2.0 x 108 m • s-1. Calculate the angle of refraction.


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