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LEGAL HIGHS. LEGAL HIGHS. NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES. WHAT ARE NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES?. bath salts methoxetamine 3-MeO-PCP 25C-NBOMe 3-FMC spice kratom salvia divinorum JWH-018 4-AcO-DET PRO-LAD TMFPP. mephedrone 0-desmethyltramadol MDPV piperazine beta-ketone

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slide5
bath salts

methoxetamine

3-MeO-PCP

25C-NBOMe

3-FMC

spice

kratom

salvia divinorum

JWH-018

4-AcO-DET

PRO-LAD

TMFPP

mephedrone

0-desmethyltramadol

MDPV

piperazine

beta-ketone

Methylone

plant food

nitrous oxide

2C-B-FLY

bromo-dragonFLY

25I-NBOe

AMT

mCPP

what are novel psychoactive substances1

WHAT ARE NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES?

They are psychoactive substances that are not scheduled by the UN drugs convention of 1961 or 1971

slide8
The primary characteristics of novel psychoactives that differentiate them from familiar illicit substances:
  • No clear data on measures of incidence or prevalence
  • No clear data on motivations for use
  • No clear data on patterns of use
  • No clear data on objectively measured adverse drug reactions
the rate at which new substances emerge
The rate at which new substances emerge:
  • 2008 - 13
  • 2009 - 24
  • 2010 - 41
  • 2011 - ?
  • 2012 - ??
the sheer number of substances on offer is staggering 1000 s
The sheer number of substances on offer is staggering - 1000’s!!
  • The Psychonaut Web Mapping Project; between Jan 2008 - Dec 2009 identified 412 novel psychoactive substances
  • 151 - chemical compounds
  • 121 - herbal compounds
  • 140 - combination of herbal/chemical
their utility and function has also broadened
Opioids

Hallucinogens

Dissociatives

Piperazines

Entactogens

Stimulants

Sedatives

Anabolic Steroids

Aphrodisiacs

alpha-methylfentanyl, MPPP, etc

PRO-LAD, AMT, 2C-B-FLY, etc

Methoxetamine, 3-MeO-PCP, etc

BZP, TFMPP, etc

MDE, MBDB, etc

Mephedrone, MDPV, etc

Methylmethaqualone, etc

Prostanazol (analogue of Winstrol), etc

Sulfoaildenafil (analogue of Viagra), etc

Their utility and function has also broadened:
novel psychoactives are either discovered or created
Novel psychoactives are either ‘discovered’ or ‘created’
  • Discovered:By trawling through scientific literature to discover existing, but long forgotten, drugs that have similar subjective effects to common recreational drugs. For e.g. Mephedrone.
  • Created: By tweaking the molecular structure of existing drugs.
slide14
Why do novel psychoactive substances pose a particular challenge to policy makers, health practitioners, researchers, drug workers, etc?
  • Large number of substances
  • Broad utility/function
  • Increasing rate at which new substances emerge
  • Internet
what is in place to assist with these challenges
What is in place to assist with these challenges?
  • Temporary class drug orders
  • Early warning systems (EMCDDA, ReDNet, Psychonaut Web Mapping Project)
  • Internet
slide16

www.erowid.orgwww.drugs-forum.comwww.bluelight.ruhttp://wiki.bluelight.ruwww.emcdda.europa.euwww.rednetproject.euwww.psychonautproject.euhttp://en.wikipedia.orgwww.erowid.orgwww.drugs-forum.comwww.bluelight.ruhttp://wiki.bluelight.ruwww.emcdda.europa.euwww.rednetproject.euwww.psychonautproject.euhttp://en.wikipedia.org

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