Nutrition 101
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Nutrition 101. Andrew Lysy Look here for help with nutrition!. 1. Macronutrients. Carbohydrates – 4 calories/g Proteins – 4 calories/g Lipids – 9 calories/g. 2. What are Micronutrients?. Provide calories or energy Needed for Growth Metabolism Other body functions

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Nutrition 101

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Nutrition 101

Nutrition 101

  • Andrew Lysy

  • Look here for help with nutrition!

1


Macronutrients

Macronutrients

  • Carbohydrates – 4 calories/g

  • Proteins – 4 calories/g

  • Lipids – 9 calories/g

2


What are micronutrients

What are Micronutrients?

  • Provide calories or energy

  • Needed for

    • Growth

    • Metabolism

    • Other body functions

  • Needed in large amounts

3


Macronutrients1

Macronutrients

  • Average person needs to consume 2,000 calories/day

  • Athletes and people who exercise consume more

  • Sedentary consume less

  • 3,500 calories = 1 pound

  • Fat and muscle weigh the same

    • 1 lb of fat takes up more space

4


Daily values

Daily Values

  • Based on 2,000 calorie diet

    • Total fat : 65g

      • Saturated fat : 20g

      • Cholesterol: 300 mg

    • Carbohydrates: 300g

      • Dietary fiber : 25g

      • Sodium : 2,400 mg

    • Protein : 50g

5


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • 45-70% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)

  • Main source of fuel

  • Glucose -> energy

  • CNS, kidneys, brain, muscles, RBC need carbs to function

  • Stored and used later for energy

  • Fiber

6


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Found in starchy foods

    • Fruits

    • Milk

    • Yogurt

    • Bread

    • Potatoes

7


Carbohydrate misconceptions

Carbohydrate Misconceptions

  • Causes obesity

  • Protein intake > carb intake

  • Less carb intake will burn more fat

  • Eating carbs makes you hungry

8


Protein

Protein

  • 10-35% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)

    • 0.8-1.8 g/lb

  • Growth

  • Tissue repair

  • Immune function

  • Hormones and enzymes

  • Last source of energy

  • Lean muscle mass

9


Protein1

Protein

  • Found in:

    • Meats

    • Poultry

    • Fish

    • Cheese

    • Milk

    • Nuts

10


What is a protein

What is a “Protein”

  • Complete proteins

    • Contain all amino acids

    • Correct ratio for + nitrogen balance

  • Incomplete proteins

    • Lacks one or more essential amino acids

  • Complementary protein

    • Two or more incomplete proteins together

11


Complementary proteins

Complementary Proteins

  • Popular for vegetarians and vegans

    • Grains and legumes

      • Rice and beans

      • Rice and peas

      • Wheat and peanuts

12


Lipids

Lipids

  • 20-30% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)

  • Normal growth and development

  • Second source of energy

  • Fat-soluble vitamins

    • A, D, E, K

  • Provides cushion for organs

  • Maintains cell membranes

  • Taste, consistency, stability to foods

13


Lipids are they bad

Lipids: Are They Bad?

  • Saturated Fatty Acids

    • Unhealthy

    • Solid at room temperature

  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    • More beneficial

  • Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

    • Oils- olive, canola, peanuts, avocados

  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

    • Sunflower oil, corn oil

  • Trans unsaturated Fatty Acid

    • Increases shelf life

14


Omega 3 fatty acids

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • ALA, CLA, DHA

  • Essential fatty acids

    • Lower total serum cholesterol

    • Interferes with blood clotting

    • Increased smooth muscle relaxation

    • Decreases excessive inflammation

    • Too much can cause damage

    • No more than 3g/day

15


Micronutrients

Micronutrients

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water

16


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Essential for health

  • Fat-soluble

    • Vitamins A, D, E, K

  • Water-soluble

    • Vitamin C

    • Vitamin B-complex

  • Regulate energy metabolism

  • Control process of tissue synthesis

  • Protect cell’s plasma membrane

17


Minerals

Minerals

  • Essential to life

  • Provide structure in formation of bones and teeth

  • Maintain normal heart rhythm

  • Muscle contractility

  • Acid-base balance

  • Regulate metabolism

18


Food label 101

Food Label 101

19


Good eating

Good Eating

  • Variety

  • Balance

  • Moderation

  • Adequacy

  • Calorie Control

  • “Everything in moderation, including moderation”

20


Good eating1

Good Eating

  • Balance calories

    • Avoid oversized portions

      • Restaurants

  • Increase fruits and vegetables

  • Make half of your grains whole

  • Water >

21


Content definitions

Content Definitions

  • Free -No or minimal amount

    • Fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar, calories

  • Low - fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calorie

  • Lean - Fat content in meat, poultry, seafood

  • High - 20% or more of DV

  • Good source - 10-19% of DV

22


Content definitions1

Content Definitions

  • Reduced - at least 25% less than regular

  • Less - 25% less

  • Light - 1/3 fewer calories and/or 1/2 of fat

  • More - 10% or more of DV

23


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