The Growth
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

The Growth of the American Labor Movement PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 39 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Growth of the American Labor Movement. The Worker – Immigrants. Farmers Depression, Debt, Crop Prices Irish and German (Pre 1880s ) “Old Immigrants” Potato Famine, Jobs, Instable Govt Eastern/Southern Europeans (Post 1880’s) “New Immigrants”

Download Presentation

The Growth of the American Labor Movement

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The growth of the american labor movement

The Growth

of the

American

Labor Movement


The worker immigrants

The Worker – Immigrants

  • Farmers

    • Depression, Debt, Crop Prices

  • Irish and German (Pre 1880s)

    • “Old Immigrants”

    • Potato Famine, Jobs, Instable Govt

  • Eastern/Southern Europeans (Post 1880’s)

    • “New Immigrants”

    • Religious, Racial, Political Persecution

    • Labor Contract Laws

      • Free Passage  Deducted from paycheck

        Why do Industrialists encourage Immigration?

        What is this going to lead to?


The worker the issues

The Worker – The Issues

  • Low Income

    • Avg. $450/yr  “Poor Line” $600/yr

    • Women paid 20% less than men

  • Harsh Conditions

    • 10-12hrs/6 days per week

    • Little to no safety regulations

  • Child Labor

    • 15% of kids between 10-15 yrs work

      • 60% in Agriculture

    • Early Child Labor Laws

      • Only set minimum of 12yrs

      • Usually Ignored


The growth of the american labor movement

Child Labor


The growth of the american labor movement

Child Labor


Emerging unionism

Emerging Unionism

  • Little success in early 19th c.

  • Craft Unions

    • Grouped by specific skills

    • Too small and often isolated

  • National Unions

    • Often Trade Unions

    • Begin to grow in late 19th c.

    • Often lacked support due to violence


The growth of the american labor movement

The Molly Maguires (1875)

  • Secret organization of miners

  • Known for violent tactics against Industrialists and management

  • Exposed by James McParland

JamesMcParland

“Pinkerton”


The growth of the american labor movement

The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents

  • Private “security” agency

  • Used as spies within labor groups

  • Often called in as “Strike Breakers”


The growth of the american labor movement

Management vs. Labor

“Tools” of Management

“Tools” of Labor

  • “scabs”

  • P. R. campaign

  • Pinkertons

  • lockout

  • blacklisting

  • yellow-dog contracts

  • court injunctions

  • open shop

  • boycotts

  • sympathy demonstrations

  • informational picketing

  • closed shops

  • organized strikes

  • “wildcat” strikes


The growth of the american labor movement

A Striker Confronts a SCAB!


The growth of the american labor movement

Knights of Labor

Remember Me!

Uriah Stephens Founder (1869)

Terence V. Powderly Leader (1879-93)


The growth of the american labor movement

Knights of Labor (1869)

  • Originally a secret organization

  • Considered first “National” L. Union

  • 700,000 member at its peak (1886)

  • Rapidly declines due to violence and disorganization

Knights of Labor trade card


The growth of the american labor movement

Goals of the Knights of Labor

  • Eight-hour workday.

  • Workers’ cooperatives.

    • - Worker-owned factories.

  • Abolition of child and prison labor.

  • Increased circulation of greenbacks.

  • Equal pay for men and women.

  • Safety codes in the workplace.

  • Prohibition of “contract labor”.

    • Supported Chinese Exclusion


The growth of the american labor movement

The American Federation of Labor: 1886

Remember Me Too!

  • Emerged out of dispute in K of L

  • Organization made up of Craft Unions

  • Focused on Wages, Hours, & Conditions

  • Also sees decline and lack of support due to violence but remained active until 1955

Samuel Gompers


The growth of the american labor movement

How the AF of L Would Help the Workers

  • Catered to the skilled worker.

  • Represented workers in matters of national legislation.

  • Maintained a national strike fund.

  • Evangelized the cause of unionism.

  • Prevented disputes among the many craft unions.

  • Mediated disputes between management and labor.

  • Pushed for closed shops.


Major labor disputes and violence

Major Labor Disputes and Violence

  • 1877 – Great Railroad Strike

  • 1886 – Haymarket Riot

  • 1892 – Homestead Strike

  • 1894 – Pullman Strike


The growth of the american labor movement

The Great Railroad Strike (1877)

Legacy: First major national labor conflict


The growth of the american labor movement

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

  • Cause: 10% Wage Cuts

  • Strikes stretch from Baltimore to St. Louis

  • Rioting in major cities

  • Destroyed Equipment

  • Rutherford B Hayes forced to call on state and federal troops to suppress troops

  • Result: 100 people dead


The growth of the american labor movement

The Tournament of Today: A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly


The growth of the american labor movement

Haymarket Riot (1886)

Legacy: Negative/violent view on Labor Unions.


The growth of the american labor movement

Haymarket Riots

  • Cause: K of L and AFL Call for 8 Hour workday

  • Peaceful strike turned violent when police fired on the crowd killing 2 strikers

  • Next Day: Strikers and Anarchists rally to protest killings

  • 7 police officers killed and 67 wounded by dynamite bomb after harassing strikers

  • Several strikers killed in the following days

  • Result: Society demands retribution for killed Officers

  • 8 “anarchists” arrested for murders

    • - 4 executed, 1 suicide, 3 later pardoned

  • Anarchy and labor unions seen as similar – Red Scare?


The growth of the american labor movement

Homestead Steel Strike (1892)

Homestead Steel Works

Legacy: One of the largest labor disputes ever

The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers


Homestead strike

Homestead Strike

  • Cause: Carnegie Steel innovations put large number of skilled steel workers out of jobs

  • Carnegie orders Henry Clay Frick to cut wages in hope of forcing skilled workers to quit.

  • 300 Pinkertons called in to break strike

  • AA strikers refuse to let strike breakers through… Battle ensues

  • Result: After 3 agents and 10 strikers are killed, Pinkertons retreat

  • Soon after, Pennsylvania calls in state militia to end the strike (4 months)

  • AA gradually gives up.


The growth of the american labor movement

A “CompanyTown”:

Pullman, IL


The growth of the american labor movement

Pullman Cars

A Pullman porter


The growth of the american labor movement

The Pullman Strike of 1894

Legacy: Sets precedent of Federal Government involvement in breaking up strikes


Pullman strike

Pullman Strike

  • Cause: 25% wage cuts and high rent

  • Pullman Company gains support of American Railway Union (Led by Eugene Debs)

  • Strike centralized outside of Chicago but stretches across 27 states

  • Result: Debs and several strike leaders arrested after Federal troops are called in

  • Grover Cleveland claimed strike prevented the delivering of mail and was therefore a federal crime


The growth of the american labor movement

President Grover Cleveland

If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!


The growth of the american labor movement

The Pullman Strike of 1894

Government by injunction!


Legacy of 19 th century labor movement

Legacy of 19th Century Labor Movement

  • Positives

    • 8 Hour workday for government workers

    • Abolition of Contract Labor

    • Some child labor laws

    • Some workers compensation


Legacy of 19 th century labor movement1

Legacy of 19th Century Labor Movement

  • Negatives

    • Overall, little effectiveness

      • Many historians claim workers have less rights in 1900 than they did in 1860

    • Labor Unions earn negative/violent name in middle and upper class America

      • Related to Anarchy and Socialism (Communism)

  • Why?

    • Majority of workers not in (not allowed in) major unions

      • Immigrants, African Americans, Children, Women

    • Growing Corporations = Too much $ and power


  • Login