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Measuring Migrant Stock in the Russian Federation (and selected CIS countries) Olga Chudinovskikh Moscow State Lomonosov University

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Measuring Migrant Stock in the Russian Federation (and selected CIS countries) Olga Chudinovskikh Moscow State Lomonosov University. Overview. UN approach to migrant stock estimation in the CIS countries: do the UN definitions always guarantee a correct result?

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Measuring Migrant Stock in the Russian Federation (and selected CIS countries)

Olga Chudinovskikh

Moscow State Lomonosov University

slide2

Overview

  • UN approach to migrant stock estimation in the CIS countries: do the UN definitions always guarantee a correct result?
  • Evolution in tradition of migrants’ identification in RF and USSR
  • What data valid for migrants stock estimation do the national censuses(Round 2000) in the CIS countriespresent?
  • Data sources (related to migrants stock) in the Russian Federation
  • Conclusions
un desa population division t rends i n t otal m igrant s tock t he 2005 r evision
UN DESA Population Division: Trends In Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision
  • The United States is the largest recipient of international migrants, with 38 migrants in 2005. It is followed by the Russian Federation (12 million), Germany (10 million), Ukraine, France and Saudi Arabia (with over 6million international migrants each).
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(International) migrant definition in the USSR and the RF statistics and science

Before 1990- main problems: to decrease migration from ruarl areas and to stimulate migration to the regions of rapid industrial development. No experience of international migration estimation (no special methodology, no special definitions)

Demographic encyclopedia published in 1985 defined only “a migrant” as “a person who migrates, i.e.

  • crosses the administrative borders of territories and
  • changes place of residence for more or less long period”.

Criteria for statistical observation both of internal and international migrants in the USSR and Russia :

neither citizenship, nor place of birth criterion is used.

Since 2002- citizenship is one of migrant’s characteristics.

  • 1992-1993 – refugees and forced migrants definitions,
  • 2002 – foreign citizens and stateless persons definition
  • No concrete definiton of an international migrant

(Inertia or heritage of the past)

possible sources of data for migrant stock estimation in the cis countries
Possible sources of data for migrant stock estimation in the CIS countries:
  • Census
  • Administrative records (residents with permits, foreign workers, foreign students, refugees, etc.)
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Census :the main source of data for migrants stock estimation. Questions related to migration in the CIS Censuses (Round 2000) programmes

  • Place of birth
  • Citizenship
  • Had lived in the place of residence since birth / not since birth
  • If not – since what year –
  • Previous place of residence (RF – for those who moved after1989)
  • In some countries- place of residence at the census moment (Moldova), - If was temporary absent – (period of absence ) (Azerbaijan ),
  • Refugees or deported (Ukraine, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan)

+ Languages, ethnicity

In the RF census program place of previous residence was mentioned only by those who arrived

in 1989-2002 and related to the date of the previous census: Where lived in 1989

(Region, Rural or Urban area)

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Period of residence criteria Distribution of life-time migrants (born abroad) by period of residence in selected CIS countries Source: National censuses data (Round 2000)

ethnicity as a criterion for migrants stock estimation
Ethnicity as a criterion for migrants stock estimation
  • One must be very careful using this criterion
  • RF population – 190 ethnic groups,
  • Ukraine, Belarus population - more
  • than 130 ethnic groups
  • Partially can be applied to some categories of migrants to monitor their presence in the country.
  • Self-identification – reliability can not be proven
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Percentage and dynamics of titular population in selected CIS countries.

(Source - National censuses (Round 2000) data, Statistics yearbook “CIS countries in 2002”)

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Foreigners, foreign born and non-titular population in selected CIS countries- what criteria is the best?

administrative records as a source for migrant stock estimation
Administrative records as a source for migrant stock estimation
  • Foreign workers
  • Refugees and asylum seekers
  • Data based on registration of foreigners
  • Data on residence permits…
refugees forced migrants in the rf
Refugees (forced migrants)in the RF
  • Variables :
  • Previous place of residence
  • New place of residence (RF regions)
  • Number of applications
  • Age and sex composition
  • Level of education
  • Ethnicity
  • Etc.
problem of estimation of long term visa holders
Problem of estimation of long-term visa holders

Categories of visa in the RF (each includes subcategories)

  • Private (short term < or = 3 months)
  • Business (most of subcategories of this visa holders could be long-term migrants: 3 m., then - up to 12 months, and could be extended)
  • Tourist (short-term < or = 1 month )
  • Student (many of visa holders are long-term extended up to 12 months and more)
  • Job (most of subcategories could be long term)
  • Humanitarian(could be long-term)
  • Asylum(long term)
  • Transit – up to 10 days
rf census 2010 migration related questions for residents
RF Census 2010 migration related questions for residents
  • Place of birth
  • Citizenship: RF, other,
  • How did you get the RF citizenship –

by birth of as the USSR passport holder? Or –

By naturalization ?

Previous citizenship

When – did you get the RF citizenship?

  • Your ethnicity
  • Have you ever lived abroad for more than 1 year?
  • Where did you arrived in the RF?
  • etc
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Foreign population central data bankPlanned to be created by January 2007), responsibleauthority – Federal Migration service

Stage 1 (Ministry of home affairs data)

  • Migration cards information on arrivals and departures of foreigners
  • Data on refugees and asylum seekers
  • Foreign workers data

Stage 2 (Ministry of home affairs data)

  • Residence permits, temporary residence permits and stay permits
  • Information on crimes committed against foreigners and by foreigners

Stage 3 (other ministries data)

  • Federal border service data
  • Visas and invitations statistics
  • Customs Committee data
  • Ministry of taxes data
  • Other ministries and authorities data on foreigners

Stage 4

Information exchange and distribution (rules are not defined)

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Why data on migrants stock are considered to be important?

They are supposed to create a background for the estimation of economic, political and cultural consequences of foreign migrants’ presence in the country, their interaction with local population, etc.

Concerns of immigrants integration

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Migrants who moved before the break out of the USSR (and partially – after) needed adaptation rather than integration:
  • Majority of them spoke the same language, had common cultural origin,

were born in the same country and were nationals of the same state

slide26

Experts’ point of view: Who is an international migrant?(Experts – statisticians, migration service officers, researchers.)

concluding remarks
Concluding remarks
  • No concrete or uniform definition of long-term international migrant in the CIS countries
  • Censuses based data - prevalence of citizenship criterion
  • Preferable source of data - administrative records – stocks of foreigners of different categories , as they are in focus of migration policy
  • Ethnicity can not be (the main) criterion for migrant identification in the CIS countries
  • Practical use of migrant stock estimation (foreign born definition) is not applicable everywhere.
  • Historical background of population should be taken into account.
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