Art History . Abstraction (pg. 28)- The Americas (Pg. 32) LaKeeya Funches . Abstraction.
Abstraction (pg. 28)- The Americas (Pg. 32)
Around the time of World War II, movements in art were coming to a virtual halt. This was because no one paid attention to art even though it was still being produced. Also, many artists were serving in the war.
In the 1950s the art scene was being taken over by different critics such as Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenburg. This type of critic was influencing the developing styles of art.
Abstract expressionists aimed at the direct presentation of feeling with an emphasis on dramatic colors and different sweeping brushstrokes.
Abstract expressionists works fall in two types: action paintings, which include dramatic brushstrokes or Jackson Pollock’s dripping technique, or
color field paintings, which include broad areas of color and simple forms.
In response to the abstract style, naturalism was turned to by many artists. Although it appeared to be to be similar to abstractionism, naturalism was focused on ordinary objects.
Robert Rauschenberg created different sculptures from cast-off objects he found and named them “combines.” One of his famous works, the Monogram, consisted of “found” items.
The use of ordinary objects in artists’ works sparked an influence on the next big movement—Pop Art.The 1960’s pop art went against the traditional unspoken rules of an appropriate subject for art. Andy Warhol created pictures that mocked the art world negatively. Artists like Robert Indiana produced commercial signs to create his own messages.
Minimalism sought to reduce art to its barest form. It emphasized a simple form and monochromatic palettes. This brought the invention of acrylic paints, used to achieve precise outlines or “hard-edge paintings.”
Photorealism is when hyper-real quality results from the depiction of matter in a sharp focus in a photograph.
Art was no longer limited to galleries or museum spaces. Artists were developing their art in new venues. This included outdoors. Christo and his partner Jeanne-Claude were responsible for creating the interest in Earthworks. They startled the world with the idea of landscape and architecture being packaged.
Chinese Art – Art has been present in China for thousands of years. Remains of painted wares have been found and dated back as far as 4th millennium B.C.E. Art like the two thousand mile long Great wall, is believed to one of the most famous, taking centuries to construct.
India’s artistic traditions are some of the oldest in the world. The influence of Buddhist traditions was heavily felt. However, the art of India is influenced also by Greek art on the images of Buddha,
During the rise of the Impressionist movement in Europe, Japan sent artists to study the art form. When the artists returned, they introduced new ideas. This included: linear perspective and the different colors and subjects of Impressionism. However, Japan rejected those ideas and continued using the isometric perspective and flat areas of color.
The art of Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern Africa are completely different because they have separate histories. Art in Africa emerged early. Examples are the cave paintings of Nambia. These predate any known European pieces. What is now present-day Nigeria produced life-like sculptures of political and religious leaders.
While there are objects in metal and clay, the use of fiber and wood, which are perishable, has left few artifacts to be preserved. Unfortunately, most African art was destroyed by European traders and colonial settlers. Westerners viewed their art as dangerous and threatening to their colonial pursuit.
As is the case with Africa, many objects dating centuries back were lost due to the use of fragile material in hostile climates. In Polynesia, tattooing and other body art were used to express social structure. These art forms were lost when their “wearers” died; however, they were preserved through engravings prior to photography.
Carved masks were part of Melanesian cultures. They were used in ceremonies.
Most Islamic art objects are produced copies of the Quran or containers holding the sacred text. Islamic art is non-figurative. Abstract or Calligraphic decoration can found on most art objects, including sacred architecture.
For many years the art of North and America was classified as products of craftsmanship. These artifacts were originally not thought of as art. Therefore, they were kept in archeological and anthropological museums.
The majority of artifacts are from the last two thousand years. During later centuries of the prehistoric period, the Native Americans demonstrated architectural skill.