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On Network Coding Based Multirate Video Streaming in Directed Networks. Chenguang Xu and Yinlong Xu University of Science and Technology of China. Outline. Multirate Video streaming About Network coding Related works Without network coding With network coding My work Future work.

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On network coding based multirate video streaming in directed networks

On Network Coding Based Multirate Video Streaming in Directed Networks

Chenguang Xu and Yinlong Xu

University of Science and Technology of China


Outline
Outline Directed Networks

  • Multirate Video streaming

  • About Network coding

  • Related works

    • Without network coding

    • With network coding

  • My work

  • Future work


Multirate video streaming
Multirate Video Streaming Directed Networks

  • Property of Internet

    • Heterogeneity of Receivers

  • Approaches:

    • The replicated stream approach

    • Cumulative Layer approach, Such as MPEGx (Layered Coding)

    • Non-cumulative Layer approach, Such as MDC


An example of layer coding
An example of Layer Coding Directed Networks


What is network coding
What is Network Coding? Directed Networks

  • Transmission with network coding

    • Packet level encoding at intermediate nodes

    • Decoding at receivers

  • The common method of network coding

    • Linear Coding

      E.g. 2a+3b


An example network coding

a Directed Networks

a

a

b

b

b

An example -Network Coding

T1

F1

T2

?

S

a+b

F2

F3

T3


The advantages of network coding in multicasting cont
The advantages of Network Coding in Multicasting cont Directed Networks

Advantages:

Throughput, Delay,

Disadvantages:

Packets Overhead(3%)

Encoding/Decoding Time It depends…


Related works streaming without network coding
Related works-Streaming Without Network Coding Directed Networks

  • Layered multicast streaming without

    network coding

    Rate allocation for each layer

    Fairness Issues

    Adaptive layer receiving


Related works streaming with network coding
Related works-Streaming With Network Coding Directed Networks

  • Layered streaming with network coding

    “On multirate multicast streaming using network coding” Allerton05

    Encode the packets of different layers

    Objective: Maximize the total rates of receivers

    Weakness: May cause ineffective transmission. Receiving

    higher layers while missing some lower layers .


My work the unachievability of network coding for streaming
My work-The Unachievability Directed Networksof Network Coding for Streaming

Layer1 {a, c}

Layer2 {b, d}

2 time units as a generation

{a, b, c, d}

?

k1*a+k2*b+k3*c+k4*d

m1*a+m2*b+m3*c+m4*d

layer1

k1*a+k2*b+k3*c+k4*d

m1*a+m2*b+m3*c+m4*d

layer1

Streaming

Conventional Content Distribution

For T1 and T2


Problem descriptions
Problem Descriptions Directed Networks

The Model

  • Directed Networks G(V,E,c)

  • a set of layers {Layer 1, Layer 2,…Layer k} , with a fixed rate rm for layer m

  • R is the receivers’ set

    Objective : Maximizing the total layers received


Basic assumptions
Basic Assumptions Directed Networks

  • Each encoding generation occupying Δ consecutivetime units.

  • The buffer is large enough and the link state is stable.

  • Acyclic network

  • Fixed rate for each layer


The coding scheme lsnc
The Coding Scheme- LSNC Directed Networks

  • Layered Separated Network Coding

  • The Advantages of LSNC

    The advantage of network coding

    Layer Separated for different priorities of layers

    Needn’t to pad the shorter packets with 0s


The coding scheme lsnc cont
The Coding Scheme- LSNC cont Directed Networks

The remaining problems:

  • How to determine the layer for each receiver?

  • How to allocate bandwidth for each layer?

  • How to achieve the rate of each layer?

By existed networkcoding algorithm


Optimal layer separated network coding
Optimal Layer Separated Network Coding Directed Networks

OLSNC: Jointly Solve 1 and 2.


Olsnc an example

S Directed Networksis the source. T1 and T2 are receivers.

The stream is consisted of 3 layers-L1, L2, L3, with rate of 1, 1, 1 respectively.

{L3}

{L1}

{L2}

{L2}

{L1}

OLSNC-An example

By OLSNC, T1 can get 2 layers, and T2 can get 3 layers.


Olsnc an example1
OLSNC-An example Directed Networks

Without Network Coding:

Optimal Multicast Sub-graph: T1 : 2 layers

T2 : 2 layers

Optimal Multicast Tree: T1 : 1 layer

T2 : 2 layers


Discussion on olsnc
Discussion on OLSNC Directed Networks

  • Optimal result for LSNC

  • High Computing Complexity

    E.g. 15 receivers, 5 layers, worst cast

    execution time is over 1 hour

  • A time efficient algorithm is needed


Sub optimal layer separated network coding
Sub-optimal Layer Separated Network Directed NetworksCoding

Main Idea:

1) Allocate the bandwidth for each layer from low to high,

with the objective of maximizing the aggregated maxflows of receivers for rest higher layers.

2) Achieve the multicast rate for each layer with the bandwidth allocated by existed network coding algorithm.


Performance evaluation
Performance Evaluation Directed Networks

Simulation Environments

V= {v0, v1,…v10}, R={v1, v2,…v10}

Two topologies: E1={(vi,vj)| i < j }, E2=((vi,vj)| 0 < j−i ≤ 2 }

Two layer rate allocation schemes: Flat and Exponential Scheme

Performance metrics:

AC(Vi) is the actual number of layers received by vi

OL(vi) is the maximum number of layers permitted by maxflow


Simulation Results Directed Networks

E1, Exponential Scheme

E1, Flat Scheme


Simulation results
Simulation Results Directed Networks

E2, Flat Scheme

E2, Exponential Scheme

The advantage is more obvious in E1, with Exponential Scheme.


Simulation results cont
Simulation Results cont Directed Networks

The comparison of LRR


Future works
Future Works Directed Networks

  • In undirected networks

  • Distributed Network Coding Scheme

  • Fairness problem

  • Layered P2P Streaming Using Network Coding


Thank You Directed Networks


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