CHAPTER 7b:  Nervous System
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CHAPTER 7b: Nervous System. Protection of CNS. Meninges = three membranes covering the CNS structures (p 211). Duramater = outermost layer. Dura = hard Mater = mother. netterimages.com. schools-wikipedia.org. Arachnoid Mater = web-like middle layer. commons.wikimedia.org.

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CHAPTER 7b: Nervous System

Protection of CNS

Meninges = three membranes covering the CNS structures (p 211)

Duramater = outermost layer

Dura = hard

Mater = mother

netterimages.com

schools-wikipedia.org


Arachnoid Mater = web-like middle layer

commons.wikimedia.org

Arachno = spider


Pia Mater = innermost layer following folds

commons.wikimedia.org

pia = gentle


Meningitis = inflammation of meninges

http://video.about.com/infectiousdiseases/Meningitis.htm

http://www.nmaus.org/programs/getting-it/

http://www.healthline.com/hgy-transcripts/meningitis-overview

http://healthline.healthology.com/hybrid/hybrid-autodetect.aspx?content_id=2582&focus_handle=childrens-diseases&brand_name=healthline


Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) = fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord

Continually made from blood plasma in choroid plexuses which hang from the “roof” of the brains ventricles.

Circulates continuously by being produced and then drained back into blood plasma to keep a constant volume of about 150 ml.

Function: protection

Spinal Tap = sampling technique to test CSF.

Hydrocephalus = “water on the brain”


Keeps neurons separated from blood-borne substances.

BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER

Made of LEAST PERMEABLE capillaries in the body.

Can’t keep out fats, respiratory gases, alcohol, nicotine, or anesthetics.

vandenberg.af.mil


Brain Injuries

Traumatic Brain Injuries and Brain Dysfunctions

Head injuries are the leading cause of accidental death in the USA.

Concussion = slight injury, dizziness, brief loss of consciousness.

http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation.aspx?gcid=000034&ptid=17

Contusion = marked tissue destruction, coma

Cerebral Edema = swelling of the brain, death


Stroke = cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when circulation is cut off to the brain.

http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation.aspx?gcid=000123&ptid=17

Aphasia = result of damage to left cerebral hemisphere, affects speech.

motor aphasia = affects Broca’s area and loss of speech sensory aphasia = loss of understanding of language

TIA = transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke)

BrainMatters 54:00 http://video.pbs.org/video/1390247671/


  • Alzheimer’s Disease

  • mental deterioration

  • progressive degenerative disease

  • originally called “senile dementia”

  • memory loss, irritability, moodiness, confusion, possibly violent

  • later stages include hallucinations

articles.mercola.com

topnews.net.nz

Dementia 1:01 http://www.healthscout.com/animation/1/7/main.html

Alzheimer’s Disease 19:10 http://www.alzheimer.ca/english/disease/whatisit-video.htm



Spinal Cord

About 17 inches (42 cm) long.

31 pairs of nerves arise from it.


Association neurons

Sensory neurons

Motor neurons

Textbook page 217.



Quadriplegic = damage high in cord

Paraplegic = damage low in cord


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