Attributive clauses
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Attributive clauses. What is attributive?. A lovely girl Something new the boy in white. Attributive Clause (定语从句) 概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句 . 被修饰的名词或代词叫 先行词 。. He is an English teacher who likes singing songs. 先行词. 定语从句. 引导词. 关系代词 :who﹑whom﹑that﹑which﹑whose. 引导词.

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Attributive clauses

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Attributive clauses

Attributive clauses


What is attributive

What is attributive?

  • A lovely girl

  • Something new

  • the boy in white


Attributive clauses

Attributive Clause(定语从句)

概念

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句.被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

He is an English teacherwho likes singing songs.

先行词

定语从句

引导词

关系代词 :who﹑whom﹑that﹑which﹑whose

引导词

关系副词:where﹑when﹑why


Attributive clauses

注意:

1 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中都要 充当句子成分。

2 当关系代词充当动词的宾语时可省略,当关系代词充当介词的宾语且介词不在关系代词之前的,关系代词也可省略。

3 定语从句中的谓语动词要和先行词保持一致。

4 定语从句分为限制性和非限制性两种。

5 非限制性定语从句中的关系词不可以省略。


Attributive clauses

关系词的作用:

1、连接作用 把主句和从句连接起来

2、替代作用 在从句中代替在它前面 的先行词

3、成分作用 在从句中充当一个成分


Attributive clauses

that/who

例1. The man __________ gave you the talk yesterday is our teacher.

指人: that/who (主语)


Attributive clauses

(who/whom/that)

例2: The boy_________________ the nurse is looking after is my friend.

指人: who/whom/that(宾语,可省略)


Attributive clauses

  • It used to be a small town. It is no longer a small town.

  • =It is no longer the small town that it used to be.(作表语)


Attributive clauses

  • Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be.    = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be.    = Our hometown is different from what it used to be。= Our hometown is not what it used to be.


Attributive clauses

  • The boys are from Grade one.

  • The boys are playing basketball.

The boys

are from Grade One.

who/that are playing basketball

The boys who/that are from Grade one are playing basketball.


Attributive clauses

2. The nurse is kind.

The nurse looks after my sister.

The nurse

is kind.

who/that looks after my sister

3. We watched the play “ Teahouse”.

The play was written by Lao She.

We watched the play “teahouse”

which/that was written by Lao She.


Attributive clauses

4.The young man is a famous writer.

You saw the young man yesterday.

The young man

is a famous writer.

whom/who/that you saw yesterday

5.This is the house.

Lu Xun once lived in the house.

This is the house

which/that Lu Xun once lived in.


Attributive clauses

6. Where is the girl?

You talked with her last Sunday.

Where is the girl

who/whom/that you talked with last Sunday?


Attributive clauses

I know the doctor.

His daughter studies abroad.

I know the doctorwhose daughter studies abroad.

Have you seen my book?

The book’s cover is red.

Have you seen my bookwhose cover is red.


Attributive clauses

whose在定语从句中作定语,表示引导词

与 whose 后的名词为所属关系。 whose

多指人,也可指物,指物时可与 of which

互换使用。指人时可用of whom.

This is the book whosecover is blue.

This is the book the cover of which is blue.


Attributive clauses

Yesterday she talked with one woman ____ husband died in that accident.

A. which B. whose

C. of which D. that

B


Attributive clauses

★注意 在下面几种情况下必须用that引导定语从句。

⑴ 先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything 等。

All that we have to do is to practise every day.

Something that we heard was of great truth.


Attributive clauses

⑵ 先行词被序数词、the last或形容词的最高级所修饰。

The first thing that I learned will never be forgotten.

This is the most interesting film that I have ever seen.

⑶ 先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰。

I have read all the books that you gave me.


Attributive clauses

⑷ 先行词被the only, the very 修饰。

This is the very pen that I am looking for.

He is the only person that I want to talk to.

⑸ 先行词既有人又有物时。

They talked of things and personsthat they remembered.


Attributive clauses

⑹ 当句中已有who 或which时,为避免重复。

Who is the man that is talking to John?

⑺ 如有两个定语从句,其中一个已经用了which,则另一个用that.

Edison built a factory which produced things that had never been seen.


Attributive clauses

(8) 当先行词为way时,定语从句的关系词可以有三种情况: that, in which 或不填。

I don’t like the wayyou talked to your mother.(choose the one that is not proper for this blank)

A. that B. which

C. in which D. /

B


Attributive clauses

one of + 复数名词+who/which/that +复数谓语

the (only) one of + 复数名词+ who/which/that +单数谓语

She is one of the students who ____ praised at the meeting yesterday.

A. was B. were C. isD. are

He is the only one of the students who _____a winner of scholarship for three years.

A. is B. areC. have beenD. has been

B

D


Attributive clauses

关系副词引导的定语从句:

1、由where引导的定语从句。

定语从句在修饰一个表示地点的名词时,常用where引导。

A book office is a place where tickets are sold.

Where 在从句中做状语,相当于一个介词短语。在本句中相当于in which,所以此句可以改为:

A book office is a place in which tickets are sold.

因此定语从句中关系副词where= 介词 +which .


Attributive clauses

2、定语从句在修饰一个表示时间的名词时,常用when 引导。

I still remember the year when we studied together.

When在从句中时间状语,其作用相当于一个“介词+关系代词”

I still remember the year in which we studied together.

I still remember the year (which/that) we studied in together.


Attributive clauses

This is the house where he lives.

in which

= This is the house ___________he lives.

(which/that)

= This is the house __________he lives in.


Attributive clauses

3、由why引导的定语从句。

①关系副词why 的先行词只有reason , 在从句中表示原因状语。

Do you know the reason why I left early?

Why 在从句中作原因状语,其作用相当于for which .

for which

Do you know the reason _____________I left early?

②但如果关系词在从句中不是作状语,而是作宾语时仍用that/which .

The reason ___________ he gave us was unacceptable.

that/which


Attributive clauses

关系代词和关系副词的选用。

在定语从句中到底选用关系代词还是关系副词要看它们在从句中所充当的句子成分来决定,有时同一个先行词往往关系词却不同。

1.This is the factory which / that produces TV sets.

This is the factory where my father once worked. (in which)

2.I’ll never forget the day that / which we spent together in the countryside.

I’ll never forget the day when his house was broken into. (on which)


Attributive clauses

介词+关系词引导定语从句

介词+关系代词引导的定语从句多用于正式文体中,这样的关系代词主要是which, whom , whose .

This is the house in which my grandfather once lived .

The film of which I’m speaking is to be shown next week .

This is the man from whom I learn the news.


Attributive clauses

注意:

①这类句子中的介词也可以放在从句的末尾,这时关系代词可省略。

This is the person (whom) you are going to work with .


Attributive clauses

②如何选用结构中的介词

⑴根据从句中的谓语动词的搭配

on which I spent five Yuan .

for which I paid five Yuan

This is the book from which I learnt a lot

in which there are few new words

about which Tom often talks


Attributive clauses

⑵根据先行词的搭配习惯

the dayon which I joined the league.

I still remember the daysduring which I lived in the country.

the yearsin which I stayed there.


Attributive clauses

as引导的定语从句:

⑴ as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限制性定语从句,并在从句中做主语、表语和状语,构成the same… as, such … as等结构。

I want to have such a dictionary as he has.

I shall do it in the same way as you did.

I like the same book as you do.


Attributive clauses

⑵ as引导非限制性定语。在从句中做主语、表语或宾语,这个定语从句说明整个句子,可以放在主句之前、之中和之后。

The experiment is very important, as indeed it is.

As is known to all, he studies very hard.

As we all know, China is a developing country.

常用于这种类似插入语的句式有as is said above, as is already mentioned above, as is known to all, as it is, as is often the case, as is reported in the newspaper


Attributive clauses

注意:which 和 as 的区别是:

①which不能放在句首,而as则可以;②在句中时,as有“正如”、“就像”之意,而which 没有。


Attributive clauses

下列每句均有一处错误,请找出并改正。

1.They talked for half an hour of the things and persons who they would deal with a few days later.

2.Who is the man who was praised at the meeting?

3.Is this the farm where you visited the other day?

4.Is this factory which you visited last week?

5.I want to buy the same dictionary that you have.

that

____

that

____

that

____

as

____


Attributive clauses

  • 巩固练习:

  • Finally the thief handed everything ______ he had stolen to the police.

  • Which B. whatC. whatever D. that

  • 2. He told me all ________ he knew.

  • whichB. whatC. that D. how

  • 3. He was very rude to the Customs officer, _____ of course made things even worse.

  • who B. whomC. whatD. which


Attributive clauses

  • 4. Is the river _____ through that town very large?

  • which flowsB. flows

  • C. that flowingD. whose flows

  • 5. The most important thing____ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______I have said.

  • A. which; that B. that; which

  • C. which; which D. that; that

  • 6. The songs _______ she sang in the concert yesterday sounded ______

  • A. /, beautifullyB. that ,wonderfully

  • C. which , wellD./, nice


Attributive clauses

  • 7. The result of the experiment was very good, _____we hadn’t expected.

  • A. when B. that C. whichD. what

  • 8. You may keep any _____ you find.

  • A.that B.which C.what D.whom

  • 9. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person______ she could turn for help.

  • to whom B. whoC. from whomD. that

  • 10. The Great Wall is the last place ____Mr. smith is going to visit before he leaves Beijing.

  • A. whereB. which C. / D. what


Attributive clauses

11.They study in a small classroom _____ floor is broken.

A.whose B.which C.where D.that

12. Next Sunday is the only day _____ he can spare to join us.

A.that B.which C.when D.on which

13. He isn't the man _____ he used to be.

A.that B.whom C.who D.which

14. Please pass me the dictionary _____ cover is black.

A.which B.which of C.its D.whose


Attributive clauses

15.Through practice we can learn a lot _____ can not_____ from books.

A.which;be learned B.that;learn

C.which;learn D.that;be learned


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