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Military Psychology: Personnel Selection, & Classification. Dr. Steven J. Kass Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle. Military Psychology Personnel Selection. Selection Errors False Negative – Rejecting candidate who would have been successful

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Military Psychology: Personnel Selection, & Classification

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Military psychology personnel selection classification l.jpg

Military Psychology:Personnel Selection, & Classification

Dr. Steven J. Kass

Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle


Military psychology personnel selection l.jpg

Military Psychology Personnel Selection

Selection Errors

  • False Negative – Rejecting candidate who would have been successful

  • False Positive - Accepting candidate who fails on job (more costly)


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Satisfactory

True Positive

False Negative

Performance

False

Positives

True Negative

Unsatisfactory

Reject

Accept

Test Cutoff

Selection Errors


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Selection Techniques

  • Civilian

    • Assessment Centers

    • Application Forms

    • Biographical Inventories

    • Interviews

    • References

    • Work Samples

    • Aptitude Tests (preferred by military)

  • Military Aptitude Tests

    • ASVAB: Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery

    • AFQT: Armed Forces Qualification Test


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Military Selection TestsReliability

  • Reliability – consistency/stability of test

    • Test-retest – correlation between test scores taken at 2 different points in time

      (Coefficient of Stability)

    • Internal Consistency – homogeneity of test items (Coefficient Alpha or KR-20)


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Military Selection TestsValidity

  • Validity – Does the test measure what it is intended to measure

    • Criterion-Related – correlation between test and criterion performance measure

      • Concurrent – use currently available performance measure

      • Predictive – collect performance measure later in time

    • Construct – correlation between test and measures of similar constructs

      • Convergent – highly correlated with like measures

      • Divergent (discriminant) – uncorrelated with unlike measures

    • Content – SME opinion of test content (job analysis)

    • Face – Test-takers opinion of test content


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SelectionCriterion-Related Validity

r = .00

r = .80

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

False

Negatives

True

Positives

True

Positives

False

Negatives

Performance

Performance

True

Negatives

False

Positives

True

Negatives

False

Positives

Unsatisfactory

Unsatisfactory

Reject

Accept

Reject

Accept

Test Cutoff

Test Cutoff

Poor Validity

High Validity


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Setting Cut Scores SelectionEffects of Selection Ratio

Satisfactory

True

Positives

False

Negatives

Performance

Performance

True

Negatives

False

Positives

Unsatisfactory

Reject

Accept

SR = .75 .25

Selection Ratio (SR) - # hired / # applicants


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Military SelectionSetting the Cut Scores

  • Maximize “Correct Hires” and “Correct Rejections”

  • Minimize “Misses” and “False Positives”

    • Problem of Misses - Possible unfair test

    • Problem of False positives - High cost of training

  • Cutoff scores should:

    • Be reasonable, achievable

    • Be consistent with job expectations, requirements

    • Consider willingness to accept false positives or misses


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Military Personnel SelectionEnlisted SelectionProcess

  • Application & Screening by Recruiters

  • Examinations

  • Contracting into Service

  • Accession into Military (Assignment)


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Enlisted Selection Process1. Application & Screening by Recruiters

  • Military Recruits (for enlistment) – Screened for aptitude, education, English proficiency, medical, physical fitness, moral character, age, and citizenship

    • Young: Age 18 to mid 20’s

    • H.S. Education (or equivalent)

      • Higher test scores required w/out diploma

      • Those w/out diploma less likely to complete enlistment

    • High moral character

      • Screen for criminal/juvenile record (1% screened out)

    • Little work experience

    • Physically fit

      • High physical demand, willing to risk life in line of work

      • (12% screened out)

      • Basic Training


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Enlisted Selection Process2. Examinations

  • ASVAB – single greatest determinant of who gets in.

  • AFQT (Armed Forces Qualification Test)

    • Composite of verbal/math ASVAB scores

    • Each Service sets cut score based on min composite of ASVAB components


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Enlisted Selection Process2. Examinations: ASVAB Tests

  • Arithmetic Reasoning (AR): Arithmetic word problems

  • Word Knowledge (WK): Meaning of words/synonyms

  • Mathematics Knowledge (MK): HS math principles

  • Paragraph Comprehension (PC): Obtain info from written passages

  • General Science (GS): Physical & biological sciences

  • Mechanical Comprehension (MC): Mechanical/physical principles

  • Electronics Information (EI): Electricity/electronics

  • Auto/Shop Information (AS): Autos, tools, & shop terminology

  • Assembling Objects (AO): Identify object from disassembled parts

    *Note: Coding Speed (CS) & Numerical Operations (OS) are no longer on ASVAB


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ASVABSample Items

  • GS: Water is an example of:

    a. Crystal b. Gas

    c. Solid d. Liquid

  • AR: If 12 men are needed to run 4 machines, how many men are needed to run 20 machines?

    a. 20b. 60

    c. 48d. 80

  • AS: A chisel is used for

    a. pryingb. cutting

    c. twistingd. grinding


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Enlisted Selection Process3. Contracting into Service

  • Contracting process

    • Enlisted personnel classified based on screening data and exams by Service Career Counselor for the Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS)

      • MEPS counselor “sells” applicant on specific training slot based on

        • Recruit aptitude

        • Recruit interest

        • Positions in need of filling

      • Recruit signs contract


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Enlisted Selection Process4. Accession into Military

  • Recruit joins as

    • Active duty

    • Reserve – Delayed Entry Program (DEP) for up to 1 year


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Officer Selection ProcessOfficer Candidates

  • Candidates

    • Older

    • Various levels of job experience

    • College graduates

  • Selection

    • Whole-Person Assessment (no single criterion)

      • Leadership potential

      • Technical skills

      • Character

      • Letters of recommendation

      • GPA

      • Interview

    • Selection made by boards of senior officers/personnel specialists


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Classification & AssignmentEnlisted

  • Classification – system for matching recruits to Service jobs.

    • Job-Person Match – Job analysis to identify specific tasks (task clusters) and KSAs

      • Army, Marines – Military Occupational Specialties (MOS)

      • Navy – Ratings

      • Air Force – Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC)

    • Job analysis performed periodically to update requirements

      • Validity generalization

  • Assignment – place individual in specific location & unit


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Military Personnel ClassificationEnlisted Example

  • AFSC Clusters

    • Mechanical

    • Administrative (e.g., admin specialist, personnel specialist, postal specialist)

      • ASVAB scores on WK, PC, CS, NO

    • General

    • Electronic


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Classification & AssignmentOfficer

  • Emphasis on education

  • Few positions depend on aptitude test scores

    • (exception: pilots/navigators)

  • Priority to:

    • Science & engineering majors

    • Class standing in commissioning programs


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Officer Candidate ScreeningAcademic Criteria by Service


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