Bacteria
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Bacteria. Pgs. 24 - 28. Bacteria. Bacteria are the smallest and simplest organisms on the planet. They are also the most abundant. A single gram of soil can contain over 2.5 billion bacteria. The largest bacteria found were in the intestines of a surgeonfish. Classifying Bacteria.

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Bacteria

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Bacteria

Bacteria

Pgs. 24 - 28


Bacteria1

Bacteria

  • Bacteria are the smallest and simplest organisms on the planet.

  • They are also the most abundant.

  • A single gram of soil can contain over 2.5 billion bacteria.

  • The largest bacteria found were in the intestines of a surgeonfish.


Classifying bacteria

Classifying Bacteria

  • Bacteria make up the kingdoms of Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.

  • These two kingdoms contain the oldest forms of life on Earth.

  • Bacteria are single-celled organisms that do not have nuclei, also called prokaryotes.

  • They can use cellular respiration, move around, and reproduce.


Bacterial reproduction

Bacterial Reproduction

  • Most bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission.

  • In binary fission the DNA is copied and attaches to the cell membrane.

  • The membrane grows longer and the loops of DNA become separated.

  • When the cell is big enough the membrane pinches inward and separates into two cells.


Endospores

Endospores

  • Bacteria reproduce at warm, moist environments.

  • If the environment is not favorable, the bacteria doesn’t survive or can row a thick protective membrane called an endospore.

  • Endospores can survive boiling, freezing and dry environments.


Bacteria

  • When conditions are right the endospore can break open and become active again.

  • Some endospores have been found in the digestive tract of an insect preserved in amber for 30 million years.


Shape of bacteria

Shape of Bacteria

  • Almost all bacteria have a rigid cell wall that gives it a shape.

  • Bacilli are rod shaped bacteria

  • Cocci are spherical bacteria

  • Spirilla are lone spiraled shaped bacteria

  • Some bacteria have hair like structures called flagella to help them move.


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

  • Most bacteria are in the kingdom Eubacteria.

  • This has more individual organisms than any other kingdom and existed for 3.5 billion years.

  • Most eubacteria are consumers, decomposers parasites, and producers.

  • Some contain chlorophyll to make their own food.


Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria

  • Cyanobacteria are possibly early relatives to plants.

  • They live in water environments like hot springs.

  • They could have lived inside cells with nuclei billions of years ago.


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria

  • This bacteria lives in places where no other living things are found.

  • Ex. Hot springs and beneath 430m of ice.

  • The cell walls of archaebacteria (when they have them) are chemically different that other organisms with cell walls.


Bacteria

  • There are three main types of archaebacteria: methane makers, heat lovers, and salt lovers.

  • Methane makers make methane and are found in swamps.

  • Heat lovers are found in ocean rift vents that over 360 degrees Celsius.

  • Salt lovers are found in areas of high salt concentration like the Dead Sea.


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