occupational exposure to 1 3 butadiene
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Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene. 29 CFR 1910.1051. Chemical Identification. Gaseous monomer: CH 2 =CH-CH=CH 2 Stored as liquid under pressure Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer during storage. Production and Use. US production, 1991: 3 billion pounds (almost all by

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chemical identification
Chemical Identification
  • Gaseous monomer: CH2=CH-CH=CH2
  • Stored as liquid under pressure
  • Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer during storage
production and use
Production and Use
  • US production, 1991: 3 billion pounds (almost all by
  • ethylene co-product process)
  • Used in manufacture of
  • Rubber (about 60% of total)
  • Precursors of Nylon
  • Rocket propellants
  • Lubricating oil additives
  • Agricultural fungicides
  • Latexes
  • Resins
  • Industrial solvents
  • Anthroquinone dyes
health effects
Health Effects
  • CNS effects (e.g., headaches, nausea, blurred vision) from very high acute exposures
  • Eye, nose, and throat irritation
  • Irritation and frostbite from contact with liquefied butadiene
  • Leukemia and other lymphohematopoietic cancers and possible reproductive effects from chronic exposures
benefits of standard
Benefits of Standard
  • 7600 US workers exposed to significant concentrations of butadiene, as high as 10 ppm
  • New standard estimated to prevent at least 59 cancer deaths over a 45-year working lifetime
history of butadiene bd rulemaking
History of Butadiene (BD) Rulemaking
  • 1971 - OSHA adopted original standard for BD: 1000 ppm (TWA) Source: 1968 ACGIH TLVs
  • 1983 - NTP determined BD causes cancer in rodents; OSHA and EPA published RFI
history cont d
History (cont’d)
  • 1984 - EPA published ANPR under TSCA; various unions petitioned OSHA for ETS; petitions denied
  • 1985 - EPA completed risk assessment and referred BD to OSHA
  • 1986 - OSHA published ANPR
  • 1990 - OSHA published PR with 2 ppm TWA and 10 ppm STEL
history cont d1
History (cont’d)
  • 1992 - IARC designated BD as probable human carcinogen
  • 1996 - Joint labor/industry group submitted voluntary agreement outlining recommendations for final rule; OSHA requested comments on recommenda- tions; final rule published November 4, 1996: PELs of 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm STEL, and AL of 0.5 ppm
unique features of standard
Unique Features of Standard
  • Respirators - Short replacement intervals specified for air-purifying cartridges/canisters because of rapid breakthrough and migration of BD through filter elements
  • Medical Surveillance - Periodic review of aggregated information from medical screening program to determine whether employees adversely affected by BD
unique features cont d
Unique Features (cont’d)
  • Written Exposure Goal Program
    • Required where exposures > AL
    • Includes the following unless employer can show they are not feasible, effective, or necessary:
      • Leak detection and prevention
      • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance
      • Pump exposure control technology
      • Gauging devices to limit exposure
      • Unloading devices to limit exposure
      • Engineering controls in control rooms
a scope and application
(a) Scope and Application
  • All occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD)
  • Exceptions
    • Objective data
    • Liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less BD by volume
    • BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or sealed transportation pipelines
b definitions
(b) Definitions
  • “Business day” - any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays
  • “Complete Blood Count (CBC)”
    • White blood cell count (WBC)
    • Hematocrit (Hct)
    • Hemoglobin (Hgb)
    • Differential count of white blood cells
    • Red blood cell morphology
    • Red blood cell indices
    • Platelet count
b definitions cont d
(b) Definitions (cont’d)
  • “Day” - any part of a calendar day
  • “Emergency situation” - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD
c permissible exposure limits pels
(c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
  • 8-Hour TWA: 1 ppm
  • STEL: 5 ppm

There is also an Action Level (AL) of 0.5 ppm established by the standard.

d exposure monitoring
(d) Exposure Monitoring
  • Representative; breathing zone samples
  • Initial monitoring unless
    • Objective data exist
    • Equivalent monitoring within previous two years
  • Periodic monitoring
    • Where results at or above AL but at or below both PELs
    • Where either PEL exceeded
d exposure monitoring cont d
(d) Exposure Monitoring (cont’d)
  • Termination of monitoring
  • Additional monitoring
  • Accuracy of monitoring
  • Employee notification of results
  • Observation of monitoring
e regulated areas
(e) Regulated Areas
  • Wherever exposures exceed or can be expected to exceed either PEL
  • Limited access
  • Demarcation of area
  • Communication with other employers
f methods of compliance
(f) Methods of Compliance
  • Engineering controls and work practices
  • Respirators as supplemental protection
  • Written compliance plan
  • Employee rotation as a method of compliance prohibited
g exposure goal program
(g) Exposure Goal Program
  • Written plan
  • Required where exposure exceeds AL
  • Updated as necessary
  • Respirator use not required
g exposure goal program cont d
(g) Exposure Goal Program (cont’d)
  • Includes the following (unless not feasible, not effective, or not necessary to reduce exposures below AL)
    • Leak detection and prevention program
    • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance
    • Pump exposure control technology
    • Gauging devices to limit exposure
    • Unloading devices to limit exposure
    • Engineering controls in control rooms
h respiratory protection
(h) Respiratory Protection
  • Allowable during time to implement engineering and work practice controls and as supplement where such are not adequate to achieve PELs; for non-routine, infrequent, and limited-duration operations; in emergencies
  • Respirator program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) - (d) [except (d)(1)(iii), (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1), and (2)] and (f) - (m)
  • Selection governed by Table 1; NIOSH-approved under 42 CFR Part 84
  • PAPRs or supplied air respirators provided for employees who cannot use negative pressure respirators
h respiratory protection cont d
(h) Respiratory Protection (cont’d)
  • Replacement intervals for cartridges/ canisters governed by
    • Table 1 or
    • 90% of expiration-of-service life or
    • NIOSH-approved end-of-service-life indicator (when available)
  • Replacement mandatory any time an employee can smell BD
i protective clothing and equipment
(i) Protective Clothing and Equipment
  • To prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure
  • Eye and face protection governed by 29 CFR 1910.133
j emergency situations
(j) Emergency Situations

Written plan for applicable elements of

  • 29 CFR 1910.38, “Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans”
  • 29 CFR 1910.120, “Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response”
k medical screening and surveillance
(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance
  • Coverage
    • Currently exposed employees
    • Previously exposed employees
  • Administration by physician or other licensed health care professional
  • Frequency
    • Health questionnaire and complete blood count annually
    • Physical examinations initially, every 3 years or more frequently at discretion of licensed health care professional, and at termination if 12 or more months have elapsed
    • Within 48 hours following an emergency
k medical screening and surveillance cont d
(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance (cont’d)
  • Content
    • For anticipated exposure
    • For emergency exposure
  • Written medical opinion to employer and employee within 15 business days
  • Periodic review of aggregated medical screening data to determine whether employee population adversely affected by exposure; employees informed of any information learned
l communication of bd hazards to employees
(l) Communication of BD Hazards to Employees
  • Communication of hazards as required by Hazard Communication Standard
  • Training program for employees potentially exposed at or above the AL or STEL to be repeated annually
  • Contents of training program beyond the Hazard Communication Standard
    • Medical screening and surveillance
    • Contents of standard and appendices
    • Rights to employee medical and exposure records
m recordkeeping
(m) Recordkeeping
  • Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring - maintain for duration of reliance on data
  • Exposure measurements - maintain for 30 years
  • Respirator fit test records - maintain until next fit test
  • Medical screening and surveillance - maintain for duration of employment plus 30 years
n dates
(n) Dates
  • Effective date: February 2, 1997
  • Start-up dates:
    • Initial monitoring within 60 days of effective date
    • Engineering controls within 2 years of effective date
    • Exposure goal program within 3 years of effective date
    • Other requirements, including feasible work practice controls, within 180 days of effective date
o appendices
(o) Appendices
  • Informational
    • A - Substance Safety Data Sheet for 1,3-Butadiene
    • B - Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene
    • C - Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene
    • D - Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene
    • F - Medical Questionnaires
  • Reserved - Appendix E