ece 667 spring 2011 synthesis and verification of digital systems
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ECE 667 Spring 2011 Synthesis and Verification of Digital Systems. FSM Traversal. O. X. (s,x). (s,x). s. s’. R. Finite State Machine (FSM) Model. FSM M(X,S, , ,O) Inputs: X Outputs: O States: S Next state function, (s,x) : S  X  S

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ece 667 spring 2011 synthesis and verification of digital systems

ECE 667Spring 2011Synthesis and Verificationof Digital Systems

FSM Traversal

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

finite state machine fsm model

O

X

(s,x)

(s,x)

s

s’

R

Finite State Machine (FSM) Model
  • FSM M(X,S, , ,O)
    • Inputs: X
    • Outputs: O
    • States: S
    • Next state function, (s,x) : S  X  S
    • Output function, (s,x) : S X  O

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

fsm traversal

1/0

0/1

s0

s1

s2

1/0

0/1

FSM Traversal
  • State Transition Graphs
    • directed graphs with labeled nodes and arcs (transitions)
    • symbolic state traversal methods
      • important for symbolic verification, state reachability analysis, FSM traversal, etc.

0/0

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

existential quantification
Existential Quantification
  • Existential quantification (abstraction)

xf = f |x=0+ f |x=1

  • Example:

x(x y + z) = y + z

  • Note: xf does not depend on x (smoothing)
  • Useful in symbolic image computation

(deriving sets of states)

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

existential quantification cont d
Existential Quantification - cont’d
  • Function can be existentially quantified w.r.to a vector: X = x1x2…

Xf = x1x2...f = x1 x2 ...f

  • Can be done efficiently directly on a BDD
  • Very useful in computing sets of states
    • Image computation: next states
    • Pre-Image computation: previous states

from a given set of initial states

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

image computation

R(u,v)

S(u)

Img(v)

Image Computation
  • Computing set of next states from a given initial state (or set of states)

Img( S,R ) = uS(u)• R(u,v)

  • FSM: when transitions are labeled with input predicates x, quantify w.r.to all inputs (primary inputs and state var)
  • Img( S,R ) = x uS(u)• R(x,u,v)

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

image computation example

s2

a

a xy XY

01

s1

s4

1 00 01

0 00 10

- 10 11

……….

00

a’

11

10

s3

Image Computation - example

Compute a set of next states from state s1

  • Encode the states: s1=00, s2=01, s3=10, s4=11
  • Write transition relations for the encoded states:

R = (ax’y’X’Y + a’x’y’XY’ + xy’XY + ….)

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

example cont d

s2

a

01

s1

s4

00

a’

11

10

s3

Example - cont’d
  • Compute Image from s1 under R

Img( s1,R ) = a xy s1(x,y) • R(a,x,y,X,Y)

=a xy(x’y’)• (ax’y’X’Y + a’x’y’XY’ + xy’XY + ….)

= axy(ax’y’X’Y + a’x’y’XY’ ) = (X’Y + XY’ )

= {01, 10} = {s2, s3}

Result: a set of next

states for all inputs

s1  {s2, s3}

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

pre image computation
Pre-Image Computation
  • Computing a set of present states from a given next state (or set of states)

Pre-Img( S’,R) = vR(u,v) )• S’(v)

R(u,v)

S’(v)

Pre-Img(u)

  • Similar to Image computation, except that quantification is done w.r.to next state variables
  • The result: a set of states backward reachable from state set S’, expressed in present state variables u
  • Useful in computing CTL formulas: AF, EF

ECE 667 - Synthesis & Verification

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