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Chapter 10. Accounting For Inflation. Learning Objectives. Discuss the major methods of asset valuation. Describe the alternative units of measurement in financial reporting. Describe the uses of financial report information. Describe the difference between monetary and nonmonetary accounts.

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Accounting For Inflation


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Discuss the major methods of asset valuation.

Describe the alternative units of measurement in financial reporting.

Describe the uses of financial report information.

Describe the difference between monetary and nonmonetary accounts.

2


Complaints about historical cost
Complaints About Historical Cost

In the late 1970s, the FASB issued a statement that required the disclosure of the effects of inflation to be shown in supplementary schedules to the financial statements.

As inflation slowed in the 1980s, the disclosures were no longer required.

However, the basic knowledge about reporting the effects of changing prices (inflation) is still important and useful.

3


Two dimensions of financial reporting
Two Dimensions of Financial Reporting

4

Asset Valuation

Measurement Unit


Asset valuation
Asset Valuation

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Cost Valuation is a primary principle of accounting

Two major alternative methods of cost valuation exist

  • Acquisition or historical cost

  • Current or replacement cost


Measurement unit alternatives
Measurement Unit Alternatives

6

Values will be reported in currency units (dollars)

Two major alternative measurement units are possible

  • Nominal (unadjusted) dollars

    • No recognition of changes in purchasing power

  • Constant Dollars

    • Purchasing power changes are recognized


Monetary vs non monetary
Monetary VS. Non Monetary

7

Monetary Items

  • Cash or claims to cash that are fixed

  • Changes in purchasing power will not affect reported value

    • A mortgage for $1,000,000 still requires payment of $1,000,000


Monetary VS. Non Monetary

8

Non Monetary items

  • Changes in purchasing power will impact reported amounts


Adjusting for purchasing power changes monetary items example
Adjusting for Purchasing Power Changes – Monetary Items Example

Monetary items are fixed in dollars and reported values do not change.

9


Adjusting for purchasing power changes non monetary items example
Adjusting for Purchasing Power Changes – Non Monetary Items Example

PP Adj Cost =

Current PP Index

Acquisition PP Index

Unadj Hist Cost x

10



Historical cost nominal dollars hc
Historical Cost/Nominal Dollars (HC) Items Example

The historical cost/nominal dollar method is the most popular approach to income measurement and is the primary method under GAAP.

This method measures invested capital in nominal dollars.

No income appears until an asset is sold, and price fluctuations are ignored.

12


Current cost nominal dollars cv
Current Cost/Nominal Dollars (CV) Items Example

The focus of the current cost/nominal dollar method is on income from continuing operations.

The current cost method reports only the profit available after replacing any physical capital expended in operations for the period.

This method requires subjective assessments of cost valuation.

13


Historical cost constant dollars hc gpl
Historical Cost/Constant Dollars (HC-GPL) Items Example

With this method, the income measurements in each year are restated in terms of constant dollars, which have the same purchasing power of the current year, instead of nominal dollars, which have different purchasing powers of various years.

Because of inflation, dollars spent or received in a subsequent year have a different value than dollars spent or received in the base year.

Constant-dollar accounting measures all items on the financial statements (including items from previous years) in current dollars using a general price index.

14


General price index Items Example- an index that compares the average price of a group of goods and services at one date with the average price of a similar group at another date

General Price Index

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Current cost constant dollars cv gpl
Current Cost/Constant Dollars (CV-GPL) Items Example

With this method gains and losses from charges in prices are recognized prior to sale.

The gains and losses are adjusted for charges in general purchasing power.

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Recognizing purchasing power gains losses
Recognizing Purchasing Power Gains/Losses Items Example

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Only done in Financial Reporting Methods that report transactions in constant (general price level adjusted) dollars

Holding debt during a period of inflation produces a purchasing power gain

Holding cash during a period of inflation produces a purchasing power loss


Purchasing power gain example
Purchasing Power Gain Example Items Example

-Ending PI = 315.5

-Beginning PI = 303.5

-Midpoint PI = 309.5

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Depreciation expense impact example
Depreciation Expense Impact-Example Items Example

21

Facts

Acquisition Cost $10,000

(PI = 100.0)

Est. Life 5 Years

PI (at Year End) 110

Replacement Cost $12,000

(at Year End)

Depreciation Expense under Alt. Reporting

HC - $10,000/5 = $2,000

HC-GPL - [$10,000 x 110/100] / 5 = $2,200

CV-GPL - $12,000 / 5 = $2,400



Summary
Summary Items Example

23

In periods of inflation or deflation unadjusted historical cost accounting measured in nominal dollars can be seriously flawed.

Using unadjusted historical cost accounting but reporting in constant dollars (HC-GPL) can remove most of the distortions with no sacrifice in objectivity.

Methods that rely on current values (CV and CV-GPL) may introduce subjectivity in asset valuation.


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