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Force Field Analysis. E q u i l i b r i u m. Forces. Forces. Against. For. Change. Change. Strong Weak. No Discontinuous ChangeChange Sporadic Continuous ChangeChange. Resistance Forces. WeakStrong. Change Forces. The Change Process.

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Force Field Analysis

E

q

u

i

l

i

b

r

i

u

m

Forces

Forces

Against

For

Change

Change


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Strong

Weak

No Discontinuous

ChangeChange

Sporadic Continuous

ChangeChange

Resistance

Forces

WeakStrong

Change Forces


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The Change Process

Unfreezing

Change

Refreezing


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A System’s Model of Change

Structure

Technology Strategy Products

People/Culture


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Magnitude of Change Efforts

Large System Interventions

Small Group Interventions

Person-focused Interventions


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Overcoming Resistance to Change

Participation & Involvement

Education & Communication

Facilitation & Support

Negotiation & Agreement

Manipulation & Cooptation

Explicit & Implicit Coercion


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How Companies “Manage” Change

Some don’t. They react after the fact

Some rely on “experts”

business schools

management consultants

gurus

Some build change into their orgs.


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A Sampling of Management Techniques

T-groupsCorporate Culture

DecentralizationOne Minute Manager

MatrixRestructuring

DiversificationCompetitive Advantage

Managerial GridDownsizing

Job EnrichmentTQM

Zero Based BudgetingSelf-Managed Teams

Portfolio Mgmt.The Learning Org.

Strategic Planning3600 Feedback

Theory ZOpen Book Management

IntrapreneuringKnowledge Management


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Org. Change & the Organizational Life Cycle

Entrepreneurial Collectivity Formalization Elaboration of

Stage Stage & Control Structure Stage

Org Issue Birth Growth Maturity Decline

Popular Concentration Horizontal Diversification Turnaround

Strategies in a niche & Vertical Concentric or

Integration Conglomerate Retrenchment

Likely Entrepreneur Functional Decentralized Structural

Structure dominatedProfit Centers Surgery

Innovation Invention ProductImplementation Renewal

Enhancement

Focus Survival, GrowthEfficiency & Restructuring

ResourceCoordinationDownsizing

acquisition


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Organizational Development

An effort that is:

-planned

-organization-wide

-managed from the top

in order to

-increase org. effectiveness & health

through

-planned intervention

-using behavioral science knowledge


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The OD Process

1. Identify the need for change

2. Selection of a change technique

3. Solicit top management support

4. Implement the change

5. Evaluation of the OD effort


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3 Biggest Mistakes in OD

1. Poor diagnosis

2. Neglect to take a systems view

3. Little systematic evaluation


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