Periodic table of elements
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Periodic Table of Elements. The Periodic Table of Elements. Periodic  Periodic Law  Periodic Table. Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervals

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Periodic Table of Elements

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Periodic Table of Elements


The Periodic Table of Elements


Periodic  Periodic Law  Periodic Table

  • Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervals

  • Periodic law - physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

  • Periodic Table of Elements – a table of the elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows the patterns in their properties; based on the periodic law

Can you think of anything that is periodic?


Element

  • A pure substance made up of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means

  • 90 occur naturally on earth

  • 25 were synthesized (made) by scientists

Element Song

http://www.privatehand.com/flash/elements.html


Mendeleev

1869

arranged by similarities

by atoms mass

Mendeleev left blanks where new elements could be placed as they were discovered

The Early Table


Dmitri Mendeleev

  • In the 1860’s he devised a periodic table where the elements were ordered by their atomic masses

  • He did this by grouping elements together according to their similarities

  • Draft of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

Image taken from:

http://jscms.jrn.columbia.edu/cns/2006-04-18/fido-luxuriantflowinghair/mendeleev/


Mendeleev’s Published Periodic Table of Elements

Why do you think there are question marks here?

Image taken from: http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/periodictable/post16/develop/mendeleev.htm


Mendeleev’s Predictions

  • Although Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements had missing elements or “gaps,” he was able to predict the characteristics of these missing elements because of Periodic Law.

“Ekasilicon”

Germanium

Notice how Mendeleev’s

predictions (orange column) were very

accurate when compared to Germanium’s actual characteristics (green column)


Arrangement

by atomic number not mass

by similar properties in columns

Today’s Periodic Table


Henry Moseley

  • In 1914, his work led to a revision of the periodic table by rearranging the elements by their atomic numbers

  • He concluded that the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number

  • Sample X-ray Spectra

Image taken from:

http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/smith/


Reading the Periodic Table

  • Atomic Number – on the top – identifies the element

  • Symbol – in the middle, name below

  • Atomic Mass- below the symbol

  • Color of box tells metal, nonmetal or metalloid

  • Color of letter tells solid, liquid or gas


Using the Periodic Table

  • The boxes that make up the periodic table contain a significant amount of information. To understand this information, it is necessary to refer to the periodic table’s key(s)

Atomic Number

(Number of protons)

Element Symbol

(Written with a capital letter or a capital followed by a lower case if two letters )

Element Name

Atomic Mass

(Rounded to a whole number, equals

the number of protons and neutrons)

What is Oxygen’s physical state of matter?

Which class does Oxygen fall into?


3 regions

Metals

Non-metals

Metalloids

Regions of the Periodic Table


GROUPS

Similarity in physical properties

“family”

Columns – up and down

Arrangement of the Periodic Table


Important Features of the Periodic Table: Group (Family)

  • each column of elements on the periodic table

How many groups (families)

are on the

Periodic Table

Of Elements?

FROM TOP TO BOTTOM OR BOTTOM TO THE TOP


Group (Family) Names

Alkali Metals

Alkaline Earth Metals

Noble Gases

Boron Group

Nitrogen Group

Carbon Group

Oxygen Group

Halogens

Transition Metals


Left side

Right side

most likely to lose electrons

Group 1 – can lose 1

Group 2 – can lose 2

Group 3 - can lose 3

gains electrons

Group 17 – can gain 1

Group 16 – can gain 2

Trends in the Groups


GROUP 18

  • Noble Gases

  • Do not interact with other elements


PERIODS

Properties change in a pattern

Shows a progression

Rows - across

Arrangement of the Periodic Table


Important Features of the Periodic Table:Period (Row)

  • each horizontal row of elements on the periodic table

How many

periods (rows)

are on the

Periodic Table

Of Elements?

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR RIGHT TO LEFT


Atomic Size

Decreases as it goes ACROSS the periods

Increases as it goes DOWN the groups

Other Trends


Density

Increases going DOWN the group

ENDS of periods less dense

MIDDLE of the periods is the MOST dense

Other Trends


Metals

Location

  • Found on the left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception  Hydrogen)

    Chemical Properties

  • Have few electrons in their outer energy level, thus lose electrons easily

    Physical Properties

  • ductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are solid @ room temperature

Image taken from:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/ig/Element-Photo-Gallery.--98/Sodium.htm

What metal is not a solid

@ room temperature?


Metals

  • Left side

  • Reactive Metals

    • Group 1- Alkali Metals - MOST reactive

    • Group 2 – Alkaline Metals “Earth”

  • Transition Metals

    • Groups 3-12

    • Used in industries

    • Alloys – combination of 2 or more

  • Rare Earth Metals – Lanthanide Series

    • Section found at the bottom of the Periodic Table – only taken out so it would fit

    • Named because they were thought to be rare


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFIvXVMbII0


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Atoms with Few Electrons in their Outer Energy Level

Notice: only 1 electron in outer level

Notice: only 2 electrons in outer level


Non-Metals

Location

  • Most found to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table

    Chemical Properties

  • Most have almost full outer energy levels, thus they tend to gain electrons; some have completely full outer level

    Physical Properties

  • not ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature

Image taken from:

http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/ptable/cl.htm

Image taken from:

https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/rockandmineral/sulfur.asp


Non-Metals

  • Right side

  • Groups 14- 18

  • Group 18 – Noble Gases

    • Does NOT react with other elements

  • Group 17 – Halogens

    • Very reactive

    • “salt” group

    • Kills micro-organisms


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Atoms with Full or Almost Full Outer Energy Level

Notice: 2 electrons in outer level – FULL

Notice: 6 electrons in outer level – almost full

Notice: 7 electrons in outer level – almost full


Metalloids

Location

  • Border the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table

    Chemical Properties

  • Most atoms have ½ (≈) complete set of electrons in outer level

    Physical Properties

  • have properties of both metals and non-metals

Image taken from:

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml

Image taken from:

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml


Metalloids

  • Zig-zag area on the periodic table

  • Separates metals and non-metals

  • Semi-conductors

    • Example: Silicon used to make microchips

  • Characteristics of both metals and non-metals


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Atoms with ½ (≈) Complete Outer Energy Level

Notice: only 4 electrons in outer level

Notice: only 3 electrons in outer level


Identify the Element

Period 2 – Group 14 

Period 5 – Group 2 

Group 17 – Period 6 

Group 4 – Period 7 

Rutherfordium - Rf

Carbon - C

Strontium - Sr

Astatine - At


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