BLOOD PHYSIOLOGY. Dr. Taj. Functions Of the blood. Transport (O2, nutrients, CO2, waste products, hormones) Protecting the body against infections (White Blood Cells, Antibodies) Blood clotting prevent blood loss Homoeostasis (Regulation of body temperature, Regulation of ECF pH).
1. Cellular components
2. Plasma consist of:
The Plasma is a straw coloured liquid, most of which is water. It makes up 55% f the blood and serves as a transport medium for blood cells and platelets.
The Red Blood cell
Noguchi H , Gompper G PNAS 2005;102:14159-14164
Pluripotential haemopoietic STEM CELL
Committed Stem cell
early, intermediate and late normoblast
(microcytic anaemia )
megaloblastic (large) anemia
Tissue (kidney) hypoxia
Production of erythropoietin
Stimulation of erythrocytes production
Stimulated by: Hypoxia (low oxygen)
early RBC-committed stem cells
Total Iron in the body = 3-5g
(Serum ferritin indication of the amount of iron stores)
Iron metabolism cont.
rate of absorption of iron from intestine
is markedly reduced
Iron in plasma:
(plasma iron 100-130ug/100ml)
(Total Iron Binding Capacity)
Apoferretin + iron = Ferritin
Ferritin + Ferritin = Haemosiderin
porpharin ring + iron
4 polypeptide chains:
2 and 2 chains
TYPES OF NORMAL HEMAGLOBIN
Abnormality in the polypeptide chain & results in abnormal Hb (hemoglobinopathies) e.g thalassemias, sickle cell
Gower 1 & 2 hemoglobin
Yellow coloration of skin, sclera
Tired, Fatigue, short of breath,
1. Blood Loss
2. Decrease RBC production
3. Haemolytic excessive destruction
The most common cause for a hypochromic microcytic anemia is iron deficiency. The most common nutritional deficiency is lack of dietary iron. Thus, iron deficiency anemia is common. Persons most at risk are children and women in reproductive years (from menstrual blood loss and from pregnancy).
The RBC's here are smaller than normal and have an increased zone of central pallor. This is indicative of a hypochromic (less hemoglobin in each RBC) microcytic (smaller size of each RBC) anemia. There is also increased anisocytosis (variation in size) and poikilocytosis (variation in shape).
Note the hypersegmentedneurotrophil and also that the RBC are almost as large as the lymphocyte. Finally, note that there are fewer RBCs.