Chapter 2 sociology s family tree theories and theorists
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Chapter 2 Sociology’s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists. What is Theory?. Plausible explanation Cause-and-effect Among observed phenomenon. What is Theory?. Common-sense theories Everyone creates theories Make sense of world. Common Sense Theories. Examples:

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Chapter 2 Sociology’s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists

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Chapter 2 sociology s family tree theories and theorists

Chapter 2 Sociology’s Family Tree:Theories and Theorists


What is theory

What is Theory?

  • Plausible explanation

  • Cause-and-effect

  • Among observed phenomenon


What is theory1

What is Theory?

  • Common-sense theories

    • Everyone creates theories

    • Make sense of world


Common sense theories

Common Sense Theories

  • Examples:

    • How to make friends?

    • How to succeed in college?

    • How to get a job?


Sociological theories

Sociological Theories

Not just how things happen, but

  • Why?


Theory

Theory

  • Vital to making sense of social life

  • Facts make sense because we interpret them using

    • Categories

    • Assumptions


Categories

Categories

  • Class of people or things

  • Particular shared characteristics


Assumptions

Assumptions

Beliefs we hold to be true

  • Often with little or no evidence


Assumptions about human nature

Assumptions About Human Nature

  • Selfish or Selfless

  • Aggressive or Compassionate

  • Competitive or Cooperative

  • Basic needs:

    • Food / Water

    • Companionship

    • Perception of control


Formal sociological theory

Formal Sociological Theory

  • Assumptions and categories explicit

  • Open to examination

  • Scrutiny, and

  • Reformulation


Sociological theories1

Sociological Theories

  • Explain social world

  • Make predictions->Future


Sociological theory

Sociological theory

  • Where did it come from?

  • Theories and theorists

  • Current theoretical approaches

  • Sociology as science


Where did it come from

Where did it come from?

  • 18th & 19th century

  • New system of production:

    • Industrial revolution

    • Capitalism

    • Colonialism


Where did it come from1

Where did it come from?

  • Enlightenment: New Ideas

  • Humanism

    • Importance of human rather than divine matters

  • Science

    • Knowledge of physicalworldby

      observation& experimentation

  • New political forms

    • Democracies


Auguste comte 1798 1857

Auguste Comte

(1798–1857)


Theories and theorists

Theories and theorists

  • Auguste Comte

  • Coined term “Sociology” (1839)

    • Also called “Social Physics”

  • Assumption:

    • Society=Organism

  • Categories:

    • Social Statics

    • Social Dynamics


Theorist auguste comte

Theorist: Auguste Comte

  • Sociology-> Similar to biology

  • Groundwork-future sociologists

  • Helped build the discipline


Harriet martineau 1802 1876

Harriet Martineau(1802-1876)

Categories:

  • Gender

  • Politics

  • Race

    Assumptions:

  • Equality

  • Belief in science


Theorist harriet martineau

Theorist: Harriet Martineau

  • Social activist

    • Labor unions

    • Abolition of slavery

    • Women’s suffrage

  • Traveled to United States

  • Translated Comte’s work from French to English


Chapter 2 sociology s family tree theories and theorists

Theorist: Herbert Spencer

(1820-1903)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cxfbq4evdTY

The Greatest Individual of the 19th Century


Theorist herbert spencer

***Theorist: Herbert Spencer

  • Categories:

    • “Fit” and “Unfit”

    • Men and Women

    • Rich and Poor


Theorist herbert spencer1

Theorist: Herbert Spencer

  • Assumptions:

    • Society=Organism

    • Societiesadapt to changing environment

    • “Survival of the Fittest”


Theorist emile durkheim 1858 1917

Theorist: Emile Durkheim

(1858-1917)


Theorist emile durkheim

Theorist: Emile Durkheim

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXQqMyMIAhI

  • Sociology->Academic discipline

    • Taught courses

    • Research—”Suicide”


Theorist emile durkheim1

Theorist: Emile Durkheim

  • Categories:

    • Social facts (Material & Non-material)

    • Types of social solidarity

      • Mechanical solidarity—Similarities

      • Organic solidarity—Differences


Theorist emile durkheim2

Theorist: Emile Durkheim

  • Assumptions:

  • Society studied as science

  • Social factors hold society together


Karl marx 1818 1883

Karl Marx

(1818-1883)


Theorist karl marx

Theorist: Karl Marx

  • German philosopher

  • Political activist

  • Contributed to Conflict Theory


Theorist karl marx1

Theorist: Karl Marx

  • Categories:

    • Social Class

      • Proletariat

      • Bourgeoisie

    • Modes of Production


Theorist karl marx2

Theorist: Karl Marx

Assumptions

  • Humans want to work

  • Humans are creative

  • Humans are social

  • Society is shaped by “mode of production”


Videos about marx

Videos about Marx

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ztVeUX8Hpo&feature=related

  • Marxism made simple

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KUl4yfABE4&feature=related

  • The Communist Manifesto Cartoon


Max weber 1864 1920

Max Weber (1864-1920)


Theorist max weber

Theorist: Max Weber

  • Categories:

    • Types of societies

      • Traditional

      • Modern industrial

    • Social Class

      • Class

      • Status

      • Party


Theorist max weber1

Theorist: Max Weber

  • Assumptions:

    • Modern societies-> Dehumanizing

    • Increasing bureaucracy

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBCAlZPF0D0&feature=related

    • Social institutions=“Ironcage”


Theorist w e b du bois 1868 1963

Theorist: W.E.B. Du Bois(1868-1963)


Theorist w e b du bois

Theorist: W.E.B. Du Bois

  • Categories:

    • Race

    • African American perspective: “double consciousness”

    • Education

      • Industrial

      • Higher


Theorist w e b du bois1

Theorist: W.E.B. Du Bois

  • Assumptions:

    • History influences self

    • “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.”


Modern schools of thought

Modern Schools of Thought

Structural Functionalism

  • Society as:

    • Stable

    • Ordered system

    • Interrelated parts


Structural functionalism

Structural Functionalism

  • Social institutions:

    • Family

    • Education

    • Politics

    • Economy

  • Meets need of society

    • Function


Conflict theory

Conflict Theory

  • Social conflict basis:

    • Of society and

    • Social change

  • Source of Conflict:

    • Inequality


Conflict theory1

Conflict theory

  • Conflict and tension

    • Basic to social life

    • Disagreements over goals & values

  • Sources of Conflict

    • Scarce resources

    • Power


Conflict theory2

Conflict theory

  • Focus:

  • Dominance

  • Competition

  • Social change


Conflict theory3

Conflict theory

  • Materialist

    • Labor and Economic reality

      2.Critical-> existing arrangements

  • Dynamichistorical change

    • Inevitable


Symbolic interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism

  • Interaction

  • Symbols

  • Shared meaning

  • Social creation of reality


Feminist theory

Feminist Theory

  • Gender inequalities

    • Nature

    • Source

  • Gender structures social world

  • Remedies to inequalities


Queer theory

Queer Theory

  • Sexual identity is social construct

  • No sexual category fundamentally deviant or normal


Postmodernist theory

Postmodernist Theory

  • Social reality is:

  • Diverse

  • Changing

  • No truth, reason, right, order, or stability

  • Everything is relative & temporary


Theory in everyday life

Theory in Everyday Life


Theory in everyday life1

Case Study

Focus of Analysis

Perspective

Level of Analysis

Theory in Everyday Life


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