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Breeding Oat for Human Health. B.G. Rossnagel Crop Development Centre University of Saskatchewan 8 th IOC Minneapolis, June 2008. UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. www.usask.ca. Not just about Nutrition. Question of practicality and delivery to the consumer

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breeding oat for human health

Breeding Oat for Human Health

B.G. Rossnagel

Crop Development Centre

University of Saskatchewan

8th IOC Minneapolis, June 2008

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWANSaskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. www.usask.ca

not just about nutrition
Not just about Nutrition
  • Question of practicality and delivery to the consumer
  • Who is the breeder’s customer?
    • who pays the bills?????

Crop Development Centre

who is the breeder s customer
Who is the breeder’s customer?
  • Producers
    • must be profitable
  • Processors
    • must be profitable
  • Regulators
    • public good
    • producer/processor – consumer balance
  • Consumers
    • public good
    • won’t really pay for nutrition
    • Hungry vs overfed????

Crop Development Centre

human health nutritional quality
Human Health = Nutritional Quality???
  • Oat nutritional quality
    • Physical
    • Chemical / Intrinsic / Nutritional

Crop Development Centre

nutritional quality
Nutritional Quality???
  • Physical
    • grain size/shape
    • bulk density/test weight
    • plumpness
    • % groat or %hull
    • UNIFORMITY
  • Important for producers & processors thus important for human health

Crop Development Centre

physical quality
Physical Quality
  • Significant breeding success over past 30 years
  • Real genetic change to % groat & uniformity
  • Real practical change re milling yield
  • Not exclusively genetic
    • manipulation of environment via agronomy
    • physical engineering re process
  • Compromises????
    • e.g. have we gone too far with seed size??

Crop Development Centre

nutritional quality1
Nutritional Quality???
  • Chemical / Intrinsic - Nutritional
    • starch
    • protein
    • fat (unique among cereals)
    • non-starch polysaccharides
    • fibre/ash
    • minor compounds
      • antioxidants, minerals
  • Just begun breeding in 1980s

Crop Development Centre

nutritional quality components
Nutritional Quality Components
  • Starch
    • amylose/amylopectin ratio
  • Protein
    • amino acid composition
      • biological value
  • Fat (unique among cereals)
    • fatty acid composition
  • Non-starch polysaccharides
    • beta glucan (unique to oat & barley)
  • Fibre
    • Soluble vs insoluble
  • Minor compounds
      • antioxidants, minerals

Crop Development Centre

chemical intrinsic nutritional
Chemical/intrinsic - Nutritional
  • Manipulate via genetics?
    • Definitely
  • Manipulate via agronomy
    • To a limited degree
  • Manipulate via physical engineering
    • Beyond concentration of specific components - Not likely

Crop Development Centre

breeding per se
Breeding per se
  • 7 – 10 years + seed ramp up to commercial
  • Make cross
  • Early generations
  • Agronomic, quality and disease evaluation – all about discarding
    • Begin with simply inherited traits
    • Prioritize – traits & methods
  • Reduce numbers and increase selection intensity
  • Multi-site trials
  • Pilot scale quality evaluation

Crop Development Centre

breeding per se1
Breeding per se
  • All about phenotyping and cutting corners
  • Most critical need
    • Need rapid inexpensive evaluation of large numbers of small samples
      • Examples – NIR, Megazyme kits etc.
  • New tools (Biotech)
    • may allow/assist us to cheat
    • Remember computers & small plot equipment

Crop Development Centre

challenges
Challenges
  • Moving targets
    • Difficult when breeding has a 10+ year time frame
  • Food vs feed vs fuel
    • Generally good food oat = good feed oat
    • Good feed oat likely = good fuel oat
      • Ethanol just a feedlot for yeast
  • Label requirements vs nutrition
    • Business vs public good
    • Limits potential improvement
    • Good news = positive correlation
    • Reason for regulations - provide minimum standards
    • If consumers would really pay that would drive the innovation

Crop Development Centre

challenges1
Challenges
  • Phenotyping difficulties
    • e.g. TDF measurement - $140 per sample!!!!
    • Not sexy to develop
    • Conflict between quality control and relative difference measures
  • Genetic variability
    • Is it there? Create it? Searching………
    • Can we measure it?
    • Don’t try to turn oat into wheat
  • Regulatory issues
    • Canadian PNT definition and regulations

Crop Development Centre

challenges2
Challenges
  • Critical mass in oat R&D
    • Who cares?
    • Scandinavia, Canada
    • USA?? UK?? Australia??
  • G x E
    • change G or change E?
    • or deal with it via physical engineering
    • VARIABILITY
    • this is BIOLOGY not ENGINEERING
    • Can’t control growing environment
  • Quality control vs relative genetic differences
    • Development of measurement capability
    • Breeding efficiency

Crop Development Centre

challenges3
Challenges
  • Difficult complicated traits
    • e.g taste???
    • Interactions between traits
  • Application of new technologies/tools
    • Just new tools – still have to do the breeding!!
    • Often very expensive - justify
    • Australian low phytate barley screening example

Crop Development Centre

challenges4
Challenges
  • Compromises
    • No free lunch
    • All about carbon chains
    • Only so many carbon atoms to go around!!
    • Can’t have > 100%
  • Confidentiality vs Public Good
    • Pre-competitive aspects of R&D
    • Confidentiality drives investment
    • Investment drives innovation

Crop Development Centre

challenges5
Challenges
  • Genetic engineering/genomics saviour concept
    • Deliberate or inadvertent snow job
    • Industry and government leaders being misled
  • Public & Private management -unrealistic time frames
    • popular press misleading
    • biotech misleading
      • Important tool, but JUST another tool!!!
      • Still plant breeding
  • Australian drought tolerant wheat BIOBULLSHIT example!!
    • Can’t grow wheat without water!!
  • Biology and time!!

Crop Development Centre

opportunities
Opportunities
  • Molecular mapping
    • DArT, QTL, Association
  • TILLING
    • Mutagenesis
    • Germplasm collections
  • Improved phenotyping
  • Join phenotyping with DArT and QTL mapping
    • Different for publication vs practical application
    • Can’t do TDF on breeding program - MMAS may be of great help for initial screening
    • Lots of “Ifs” but definitely worth effort & cost

Crop Development Centre

opportunities1
Opportunities
  • Financial return to breeding effort
    • Harrington barley example
      • Huge financial gain to industry
      • Not a dime shared with R&D community
  • Consumer interest
    • Apparently there, but???????
  • Engineering vs genetic solutions
    • Do most efficient
    • Combine & coordinate efforts
  • Agronomic vs genetic solutions
    • At what cost to producer?
    • Combine and coordinate efforts

Crop Development Centre

opportunities2
Opportunities
  • Genomics
    • steal from other crops
    • polysaccharide manipulation
  • Pre-competitive collaboration
    • Pilot scale testing capability
      • Canadian Malting Barley Technical Centre
  • Whole grain concept
  • Low phytate

Crop Development Centre

unique oat opportunities
Unique Oat Opportunities
  • Antioxidants
    • e.g avenanthramides
  • Non-starch polysaccharides
    • Increase content & increase best type
  • Fat
    • Take advantage
    • Alter FA profile
  • Low phytate
  • Fat stability
  • Other…………………………….

Crop Development Centre

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Core support:
    • University of Saskatchewan
    • Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture
    • Pedigreed Seed Royalties
  • Other financial support
    • Quaker Oats Co. and Quaker Tropicana Gatorade Canada (QTG)
    • Saskatchewan Oat Development Commission (SODC)
    • SDAF&RR & Ag Dev Fund
    • Cargill Ltd.
    • SuperOats Canada Ltd.(Regina)
    • FarmPure Seeds(Regina)
    • CanOat Ltd. (Martensville)
    • Grain Millers(Yorkton)

Crop Development Centre

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