Understanding real research 2. Case control studies. What can studies do?. Describe the situation: Descriptive . Explain the situation: Analytical . Compare approaches: Experimental . Study designs. Descriptive Cross-sectional, longitudinal. Analytic Case-control studies.
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Case control studies.
Describe the situation: Descriptive.
Explain the situation: Analytical.
Compare approaches: Experimental.
From Altman. Practical Statistics for Medical Research, 1991.
Retrospective, i.e. backward looking.
Relate an effect or outcome to a probable cause.
Individuals with disease (cases) compared to individuals without disease (controls).
Are cases and controls similar, except for exposure to the putative cause?
Is collection of retrospective data objective?
Is there evidence of “causation”?
Type of data – influences statistical analysis.
Reporting of risk.