Understanding real research 2
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Understanding real research 2. Case control studies. What can studies do?. Describe the situation: Descriptive . Explain the situation: Analytical . Compare approaches: Experimental . Study designs. Descriptive Cross-sectional, longitudinal. Analytic Case-control studies.

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Understanding real research 2

Understanding real research 2.

Case control studies.


What can studies do

What can studies do?

Describe the situation: Descriptive.

Explain the situation: Analytical.

Compare approaches: Experimental.


Study designs

Study designs.

  • Descriptive

    • Cross-sectional, longitudinal.

  • Analytic

    • Case-control studies.

    • Cohort studies.

  • Quasi-experimental

  • Natural experiments, policy interventions.

  • Experimental

    • Randomised controlled trial.


Study designs1

Study designs


Understanding real research 2

Past

Present

Future

Cross-sectional

Case-control

Cohort

From Altman. Practical Statistics for Medical Research, 1991.


Case control studies key features

Case control studies: Key features.

Retrospective, i.e. backward looking.

Relate an effect or outcome to a probable cause.

Individuals with disease (cases) compared to individuals without disease (controls).


Case control study

Case control study.

From: http://library.downstate.edu/EBM2/2500.htm


Advantages disadvantages

Advantages & disadvantages


Appraising case control studies

Appraising case control studies

Methodological approach:

Are cases and controls similar, except for exposure to the putative cause?

Is collection of retrospective data objective?

Is there evidence of “causation”?

Statistical reporting:

Type of data – influences statistical analysis.

Reporting of risk.


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