Mineral graph!. On left hand page Please copy the next chart in your notebook for your homework DUE TOMORROW. Mineral Groups. Mineral graph!. NAME of group. NAME of group. NAME of group. NAME of group. NAME of group. NAME of group. Top (or bottom) of left hand page. Description.
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On left hand page
Please copy the next chart in your notebook for your homework DUE TOMORROW.
Students know how to explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonic processes.
When physics and chemistry are applied to the Earth, we have Earth Science.
The earths top layer, the lithosphere or crust, is relatively thin. If we shrunk the earth down to the size of an apple, the Earth’s crust (the ground beneath our feet) would be as thick as the skin of that apple. It is in this layer that we find rocks and minerals.
Rocks and minerals help us determine important information about the Earth like what processes shaped our planet and to find out about Earth’s history.
A mineral is a naturally formed, generally inorganic, has a definite crystal structure and can be defined by a chemical formula.
A rockis a combination of many minerals with no specific array or crystal structure.
So think of a mineral as being a purebreed dog and a rock as being a mutt. A purebreed dalmation is all dalmation and has features you can see that make it a dalmation like white fur and spots. But a rock is like a mutt, it has a whole bunch of dog breeds mixed into it so that you cant tell exactly what type of dog it is.
Mutt = Is this even a dog? Yuck!
Dalmation = Purebread
What are five traits or “tests” we use to identify different rocks and minerals?
How we define minerals:
Minerals have definite properties (like the dalmation and its spots) that we can observe to figure out what type of mineral it is.
Test/trait #1 = CRYSTAL FORM
The first observable trait is crystal form. It means that the internal arrangement of atoms produce a crystal form. But not all look like “crystals” that you think of.
Test/trait #2 = Hardness
The next trait used to identify minerals is hardness. This is defined by Mohs scale of hardness.
Some elements look very much alike so to find out if they are different they do a “scratch test” to see if it will scratch certain objects to classify it’s hardness.
Test/trait #3 = Fracture test
The next trait used to identify minerals is how the mineral breaks or “fractures”, also called its cleavage.
Cleavage is the tendency to break along planes of weakness.
perfect 1 way – sheets, slices, break 1 way.
perfect 2 ways – 90 degree angles, boxes
perfect 2 ways – rhombs (squished boxes)
Fracture is how a mineral breaks. It is a tendency to NOT break along planes of weakness.
Test/trait #4 = Luster test
The next trait used to identify minerals is the luster of a mineral. There are 7 mineral lusters:
Metallic- strong reflection
Vitreous- bright, glassy
Greasy- oily, may feel greasy
Pearly- iridescent, like a pearl
Silky- sheen of silk
Adamantine- diamond, brilliant
Test/trait #5 = Streak test
The last trait we will study is called a minerals color or “streak”. When minerals are scratched on to the surface of other materials, their streak may be different than what the actual color looks like.
Here is a picture of a streak test for hematite.
1. What are the 5 mineral
2. Based off of your homework,
what is the definition of “streak”? What page did you find the answer on?
3. Define crystal form and the page you found the answer on.
4. If you had 2 minerals that looked the same, what test could you use to help identify them further?
5. Based on its characteristics, what could you narrow down this mineral to be without performing ALL of the tests? (USE THE CHART!)
CO- Students will classify different minerals based off of their characteristics.
LO- Students will work in pairs and use a flow chart/graph, identifying hardness, streak, and luster.
1. Describe a job where you think you would use the periodic table.
2. Describe a job where you think knowing about MINERALS would be important.
3. What are earthquake waves called?
4. What does the energy of the earthquake waves travel through?
5. What are the 3 main types of rocks.
6. Which rock forms from magma/lava?
7. Which rock forms from weathering and erosion (breaking down of rocks into small particles)
8. Which rock forms from intense heat and pressure?
Each type of rock, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic can change to become any of the other types of rock. This is called the rock cycle.
What are the 3 main types of rock and how are they formed?
Draw label and color the rock cycle.
Erosion and deposition
Temperature + Pressure
The Rock Cycle
Temperature + Pressure
Erosion and deposition
The rocks of the Earth’s surface are separated into 3 categories according to their origin or how they are made. They are called:
Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling of melted rock called Magma. Magma is lava from volcanoes that comes to the surface. Igneous means “formed by fire” (think ignite). Igneous rocks make up more than 95% of all rocks in the crust of the Earth. Basalt and Granite are 2 common types of Igneous rocks.
Have you ever played hot lava?
Sedimentary rocks are formed when rocks or minerals break down from erosion and get compacted together in layers. Sedimentary rocks cover more than 2/3 of the Earth’s surface.
Fossils come from sedimentary rocks.
Clap – sedimentary.
Metamorphic rocks are created when preexisting rocks (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic) are changed by heat and pressure then cool to form different rocks. The word metamorphic means “changed in form”. Marble and slate are common metamorphic rocks.
Please do problems 17, 30, 32, 33, 52, 58
Then complete the handout on the rock cycle.
Please do problems 1-5
Write in complete sentences!